A – Z

A – Amperes

A Frame – The first frame in the repeating five-frame 3:2 pull-down sequence. In two-field 3:2 pull-down video, it is the only frame that fully contains both fields from a single film frame. B, C, and D frames have their fields split among two video frames. A frames normally occur on timecode numbers ending with 0 or 5 when using non-drop frame timecode.

access file – A text file called qtaccess that contains information about users and groups who are authorized to view media in the directory in which the access file is stored.

Access Point – A hardware device or software used in conjunction with a computer that serves as a communication hub to wireless clients and provides the same infrastructure as a network bridge to a wired LAN.

Access – To get information from something like a disk or an information service.

Activate – To make a nonactive window active by clicking anywhere inside it.

Active Window – The frontmost window on the screen; the window where the next action will take place. The active window’s title bar is highlighted.

ADB-Apple Desktop Bus – Input circuitry built into older Apple computers. The ADB port attaches the keyboard, the mouse, and other input devices, such as graphics tablets and bar code readers. ADB has been replaced by USB Universal Serial Bus technology in the current models.

ADC – Apple Display Connector carries digital video, USB, and power.

Addressing – A scheme determined by network protocols for identifying the sending device and receiving device for any given item of information on a network.

Ad-Hoc Network – An independent network that provides usually temporary peer-to-peer connectivity without relying on a complete network infrastructure, which includes one or more access points.

Administrator Computer – A Mac OS X computer onto which you have installed the server applications from the Mac OS X Server Admin CD.

Administrator – When you set up Mac OS X, you set up a user. This user is an administrator. As an administrator you can create other users, including other administrators, install software in the Applications and Library folders, and change your computer’s settings.

AFP Apple Filing Protocol – A client/server protocol used by Apple file service on Macintosh-compatible computers to share files and network services. AFP uses TCP/IP and other protocols to communicate between computers on a network.

AGP-Accelerated Graphics Port. AGP is a bus style that allows the graphics card to have a dedicated bus directly to the system memory. Older PCI video cards that shared data bandwidth with all installed PCI cards as well as internal I/O controllers such as IDE, SCSI, and the like. AGP allows the graphics card to be taken off that PCI bus and put onto it’s own dedicated 133 MHz data bus. AGP also introduced a new slot type allowing AGP cards to transfer data faster.

AIFF Audio File – A digital audio file that can be used by iMovie and many other applications. AIFF stands for Audio Interchange File Format.

AIM – ATA Interface Module.

AirPort-Ready – A Macintosh computer with AirPort antennae installed and a slot that accepts an AirPort Card.

AirPort – Name for Apple’s wireless networking technology products. Apple AirPort wireless technology uses the industry standard 802.11 and is compatible with all WiFi-certified wireless networking equipment. AirPort-equipped Macs can connect to the same wireless networks as Windows PCs in thousands of hotel rooms, coffee shops, dorm rooms, and airports. Also, a single Mac with an AirPort card can serve as a wireless access point for up to 50 PCs.

ALE – file Acronym for Avid Log Exchange. A file format that allows film databases to be shared between different systems. See also telecine log.

AltiVec or Velocity Engine – The Velocity Engine can process data in 128-bit chunks, instead of the smaller 32-bit or 64-bit chunks used in traditional processors it’s the 128-bit vector processing technology used in scientific supercomputers–except that Apple has added 162 new instructions to speed up computations. In addition, it can perform four in some cases eight 32-bit floating-point calculations in a single cycle–2-4 times faster than traditional processors.

announced broadcast – A method such as Automated Unicast (Announce)enabling a broadcaster to negotiate with a server to accept a broadcast.

Analog Signal – A signal that varies continuously over time rather than being sent and received in discrete intervals. Digital signal-is a signal that is sent and received in discrete intervals.

ANSI – American National Standards Institute.

API – application programming interface.

Apple (K) menu – Menu at the upper-left corner of the screen, used to open System Preferences, set Dock preferences, select a network location, open recent documents and applications, shut down and restart your computer, and log out. Apple System Profiler Application that displays the specifications, such as processor speed, hard disk capacity, and memory size, for your Mac. To open Apple System Profiler, choose About This Mac from the Apple (K) menu, then click More Info. Application menu In each application, the menu item to the right of the Apple (K) menu, named after the application. The application menu is used to access the application’s preference settings and to quit the application.

Apple Desktop Bus – A port for connecting the keyboard, the Apple Desktop Bus mouse, and other Apple Desktop Bus devices to the Apple IIgs. It’s called a bus because several devices can ride the same cable.

AppleScript – A scripting language with English-like syntax, used to write script files that can control your computer. AppleScript is part of the Mac operating system and is included on every Macintosh.

AppleShare File Server – A Mac OS-based computer running file server software that allows users to store and share documents, folders, and applications over an AppleTalk or TCP/IP network.

AppleShare Print Server – A Macintosh computer running software that stores documents sent to it over an AppleTalk network and manages the printing of documents on a printer.

Applesoft BASIC – The Apple II dialect of the BASIC programming language; it’s built into your Apple IIgs. BASIC-Acronym for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. The most popular language for personal computers; a version of it is built into your Apple IIgs.

AppleTalk – A comprehensive network system developed by Apple that runs on a variety of cable systems and protocols. It facilitates communication between network devices, such as computers, file servers, and printers, which may be a mixture of Apple and non-Apple products. Several elements make up an AppleTalk network system-AppleTalk software and AppleTalk hardware; the latter includes computing components and connectivity components. AppleTalk’s design allows the inclusion of a variety of data-link and cabling methods in a network system. Data-link and cabling methods widely used include LocalTalk, EtherTalk using standard Ethernet media, and TokenTalk using token ring media.

Application – Software designed for a particular purpose, such as home finance, education, or word processing.

Application Environment – Consists of the frameworks, libraries, and services along with associated APIs necessary for the runtime execution of programs developed with those APIs. The application environments have dependencies on all underlying layers of system software. Mac OS X currently has five application environments-Classic, Carbon, Cocoa, Java, and BSD Commands.

Application Programming Interface API – A set of routines used by an application to direct the performance of procedures by the computer’s operating system.

Application Technology – Used to refer to any of the components used to create or support applications. For example, Java is an application technology (a language, in this instance) that is used to create and support Java applications.

Aqua – The Mac OS X user interface, characterized by translucent windows and glowing controls.

Arrow Keys – The keys in the lower-right corner of the Apple IIgs keyboard that you can press in most applications to move the cursor insertion point in the direction indicated.

Art Application – An application for drawing.

ASCII – Acronym for American Standard Code for Information Interchange; pronounced ASK-ee. A communications code that defines the representation of letters, numbers, and punctuation marks.

ASIC-Application – specific integrated circuit.

Aspect Ratio-The ratio of an image’s width to its height expressed either as two numbers width:height or as a value equal to the height divided by the width. Standard video uses 4:3 0.75 while 24P video uses 16:9 0.56. Film aspect ratios depend on the format and lenses used.

Assembly Language – A programming language very close to the language of electrical impulses that is the Apple IIgs’s native tongue. Because assembly-language programs require very little translation, they can be very fast.

Asynchronous & Synchronous modes – Two connected modems can communicate in either asynchronous or synchronous mode. In asynchronous mode, both modems can send data at the same time and pause at any time. To ensure that data is not lost, extra bits -called start and stop bits – are used to frame each character sent. In synchronous mode, only one modem can send data at a time. The modem sends a continuous stream and does not stop until it is finished; the other modem cannot send until the first modem is finished. No extra bits are used to frame characters.

ATA – AT attachment.

Attribute – In Entity-Relationship modeling, an identifiable characteristic of an entity. For example, lastName can be an attribute of an Employee entity. An attribute typically corresponds to a column in a database table. A column-In a relational database, is the dimension of a table that holds values for a particular attribute. For example, a table that contains employee records might have a column titled LAST_NAME that contains the values for each employee’s last name.

Audio Viewer – In iMovie, the tab with the musical note at the bottom of the screen that displays audio clips in three tracks and volume adjustment controls.

Authentication Authority Attribute – A value that identifies the password validation scheme specified for a user and provides additional information as required.

Automatic Unicast (Announce) – A method of delivering a broadcast to a streaming server in which an SDP file is automatically copied and kept current on the server. A broadcast user name and password must be created before starting such a broadcast.

Auto-Repeat – To happen again and again. The keys on the keyboard are auto-repeat keys-if you hold one down, the computer will keep generating that character automatically.

AVI (Audio Visual Interleave) – A Windows video file format.
Background Printing – A software application that runs on a computer as a background process, allowing the user to work on other tasks while a document is being printed. A print server-is a combination of hardware and software that stores documents sent to it over a network and manages the printing of the documents on a printer. A print server completely frees a computer of a printing task so that the computer is free to be used for other work.

Background – An aspect of multitasking capability. A program can run and perform tasks in the background while another program is being used in the foreground.

Backspace – To move the cursor to the left.

Backup Copy – A duplicate of a disk. Making a backup copy of a disk is like making a photocopy of a paper document.

Bandwidth – The capacity of a network connection, measured in bits or bytes per second, for carrying data.

Base Station – The physical wireless newtork access point to the Internet.

BASIC – Acronym for Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. The most popular language for personal computers; a version of it is built into your Apple IIgs.

Baud – Baud is an older measurement for data transmission speed. One baud is one change of electronic state per second. A more accurate (and therefore more widely used) term is bps (bits per second).

Berkeley Software Distribution BSD – Formerly known as the Berkeley version of UNIX, BSD is now simply called the BSD operating system. The BSD portion of Mac OS X is based on 4.4BSD Lite 2 and FreeBSD, a flavor of 4.4BSD.

Binary Numbering System – A system in which every number is expressed as a combination of zeros and ones. It’s perfectly suited to computers because the computer’s microprocessor is made up of switches like light switches that can be either on or off. On is represented as the number 1; off as 0.

BIND Berkeley Internet Name Domain – The program included with Mac OS X Server that implements DNS. The program is also called the name daemon, or named, when the program is running.

BIOS – basic input/output system.

Bit Rate – The speed at which bits are transmitted on a network, usually expressed in bits per second.

Bit – Contraction of the words binary and digit. The smallest item of useful information a computer can handle. Usually represented as a 1 or a 0. Eight bits equal one byte.

Bitmap – A pixel-by-pixel representation of an object.

Blower – A blower is a server-specific fan that pulls air through the server’s case, keeping the system cool. A fan, on the other hand, typically blows air into a case to keep it circulating. When referring to a fan in a server, use the term blower.

Boot ROM – Low-level instructions used by a computer in the first stages of starting up.

Boot – To start up a computer.

Bps – Bits per second. A measurement of the speed at which data travels from one place to another; sometimes expressed as Kbps (thousands of bits per second) or Mbps (millions of bits per second).

Bridge – A device that connects two networks of the same type together such as two Ethernet networks. The connected networks form a single large network. A router-is a device that connects networks together, isolating traffic within each network. The networks can be of the same type for example, two Ethernet networks or of different types for example, Token Ring and Ethernet. A router receives data transmitted from other networks and retransmits it to its proper destination over the most efficient route.

Broadcast User – A user who has permission to broadcast to the streaming server. The broadcast user name and password are set in the General Settings pane of Streaming Server Admin and are used in conjunction with announced broadcasts. It is not necessary to create a broadcast user for UDP broadcasts.

Broadcast – Transmitting one copy of a stream over the whole network.

Browser Plug-In – Software that you attach to a browser to enable it to display specific data formats.

Buffer – An area of memory where information is kept until the computer or a peripheral device is ready to deal with it. Sort of an overflow tank for the microprocessor.

Bug – An error in an application or a problem with hardware. The expression comes from the early days of computing when a moth flew into a room-size computer and caused a breakdown.

Bulletin Board System-Abbreviated BBS. A computerized version of the bulletin boards frequently found in grocery stores places to leave messages and to advertise things you want to buy or sell. One thing you get from a computerized bulletin board that you can’t get from a cork board is free software.

Bus – A network layout that uses a single cable to connect all the devices in a sequential line. Messages are broadcast along the whole bus, and each network device listens for and receives messages directed to its unique address.

Button – The raised area on top of the mouse. You press it when you want to choose from a menu or perform other activities in mouse-based applications. Also, in mouse-based applications, a rectangle with rounded corners and a word inside that you click to designate, confirm, or cancel an action.

Byte – A sequence of eight bits that represents an instruction, a letter, a number, or a punctuation mark.
Cache Memory – Cache RAM is fast random-access memory that is used to store data for CPU operations. Level 1 cache RAM is part of the CPU itself; level 2 L2 cache RAM is on separate chips. Conventional L2 cache is connected to the system bus, and the speed of its transactions with the CPU is limited by the system bus speed. Level 2 backside cache a feature introduced with G3 computers is located on the same board as the CPU processor board and is connected directly to the CPU through its own high-speed bus. The L2 backside cache allows the system to run significantly faster than conventional L2 cache. As more and more processors begin to include L2 cache into their architectures, Level 3 cache is now the name for the extra cache built into motherboards between the microprocessor and the main memory-what was once L2 cache on motherboards now becomes L3 cache when used with microprocessors containing built-in L2 caches.

Callback – A security precaution in which a user’s preauthorized phone number is verified before allowing the user to connect to a network from a remote location.

Calling Tone – A calling tone is a high-pitched, intermittent sound that can be produced by a modem that is originating a data call. Some international telephone agencies require that your modem emit a calling tone so that a person answering your modem’s call can immediately identify your modem as a machine and not a human caller.

Canonical Name – The real name of a server when you’ve given it a nickname or alias. For example, mail.apple.com might have a canonical name of MailSrv473.apple.com.

Caps Lock – A key that you can lock into place so that subsequent letters you type will come out capitalized. Caps Lock doesn’t affect nonalphabet keys.

Carbon – The Carbon APIs can be used to write Mac OS X applications that also run on previous versions of the Mac OS 8.1 or later.

Card – A circuit board that you can plug into a slot inside the Apple IIgs to expand the computer’s memory or give it the means to communicate with a hard disk, a braille printer, or some other peripheral device.

Carriage Return – Abbreviated CR. A nonprinting character that tells the computer or printer to end a line of text and start a new one. It’s used to end paragraphs. Even though you can’t see them, you can delete carriage returns the same way you delete other characters.

Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance CSMA/CA – A networking protocol that avoids collisions instead of detecting a collision like the algorithm used in Ethernet networks IEEE 802.3 standards.

Carrier – The carrier is the telephone line signal used to transfer data between two connected modems. The sound you hear through the modem’s speaker when it connects is the carrier signal.

Case – The outer covering of the computer.

Catalog – A list of all the files on a disk. Also called a directory. A subdirectory-is a directory within a directory that usually contains related documents; used to organize the information on large-capacity disks.

CD – compact disc.

CD-ROM – Abbreviation for compact disc read-only memory. A compact disc can store large amounts of information.

CD-ROM-Compact Disc – Read Only Memory, often shortened to CD. One of the most popular ways to distribute programs today. These discs can hold over 600 megabytes of data and are easily portable.

CD-RW-Short for CD-ReWritable disk, a type of CD disk that enables you to write onto it in multiple sessions. With CD-RW drives and disks, you can treat the optical disk just like a floppy or hard disk, writing data onto it multiple times. Macintosh computers have slot-loading or tray-loading drives.

Cell – The intersection of a row and a column in a spreadsheet. A cell can hold a number, label, function, or formula.

Centralized File Service – File service that is provided by a central server accessed by network users. Distributed file sharing-is a type of file service in which users can share the content of their hard disks with other users on the network.

CFM – Stands for Cubic Feet per Minute. This is how a blower or fan is rated-by the amount of air it can move, measured in CFM.

CGI Common Gateway Interface – A script or program that adds dynamic functions to a Web site. A CGI sends information back and forth between a Web site and an application that provides a service for the site. For example, if a user fills out a form on the site, a CGI could send the message to an application that processes the data and sends a response back to the user.

Character Set – The letters, numbers, and symbols that can be generated by pressing keys on a keyboard.

Character – A letter, number, or other symbol.

Child – A computer that gets configuration information from the shared directory domain of a parent.

Chip – A small silicon wafer containing thousands of microscopic components.

Choose – To pick a command from a menu. Usually you do this after selecting something for the Apple IIgs to act on.

CHRP – Common Hardware Reference Platform.

Circuit Board – Also called the main circuit board-is a large circuit board that holds RAM, ROM, the microprocessor, custom integrated circuits chips, and other components that make the computer a computer.

Circuitry – A network of wires, chips, resistors, and other electronic devices and connections.

Classic – An application environment that allows users to continue to use their systems for everything they already do. Classic applications don’t appear in the new Aqua interface.

Class – In object-oriented languages such as Java, a prototype for a particular kind of object. A class definition declares instance variables and defines methods for all members of the class. Objects that have the same types of instance variables and have access to the same methods belong to the same class.

Clear – A key on the numeric keypad. Pressing Clear works the same as pressing Control-X. Pressing Control-X while writing a BASIC program cancels the line you’re typing.

Click – To position the pointer on something, then press and quickly release the mouse button.

Client Computer – A computer on a network that receives network services from a server.

Client – A program that requests services from other programs or computers that are functioning as servers or hosts.

Clip Art Application – Electronic pictures that you can clip from one disk or document into another. You can buy disks of clip art and use these professional-quality drawings to illustrate your documents.

Clip Viewer – In iMovie, the tab with the eye at the bottom of the screen that displays video clips arranged in a movie.

Clipboard – A special part of memory that stores the most recent thing you cut. You can paste the contents of the Clipboard into other parts of your document.

Clock Rate – The rate at which bits move from one internal computer component to another.

Close Box – The small box on the far-left side in the title bar of an active window. Clicking a close box closes the window.

Closed Network – A feature provided by some third-party wireless networking base stations. A closed network does not display the network name in the Control Strip. Instead, a user has to know the specific network name.

Coaxial Cable – An electrical cable consisting of a central wire surrounded by a second tubular wire made of braided mesh, both of which have the same center point, or axis, hence the name coaxial. Separated from the central wire by insulation, the tubular wire shields electronic impulses traveling along the central wire. In turn, the tubular wire is surrounded by insulation.

Cocoa – An object-oriented framework in Mac OS X that provides development tools and services that allow applications to interact with one another and take advantage of a variety of advanced libraries. Cocoa applications look the same as Carbon applications to end users.

Codec – Any technology for compressing and decompressing data. Codecs can be implemented in software, hardware, or a combination of both.

ColorSync – The color management technology integrated into Mac OS X. ColorSync ensures that the color you see is the same from your digital image onscreen to the image on the paper printed by your printer. ColorSync uses industry standard technologies such as ICC profiles and sRGB color spaces.

Column – In a relational database, the dimension of a table that holds values for a particular attribute. For example, a table that contains employee records might have a column titled LAST_NAME that contains the values for each employee’s last name. Attribute-In Entity-Relationship modeling, is an identifiable characteristic of an entity. For example, lastName can be an attribute of an Employee entity. An attribute typically corresponds to a column in a database table.

Combo – An optical drive that writes CD-R discs; writes CD-RW discs; reads DVD-ROM discs; and reads CD-ROM discs.

command mode – In command mode, the modem interprets data from the computer as AT commands, instead of transmitting the data to the remote modem. When you first open a telecommunications application, the modem is automatically placed in command mode. When you establish a connection with another modem, your modem switches to on-line mode. Before entering an AT command, you must use the +++ command to return the modem to command mode.

Command – An instruction given to a computer by menu selection or keystroke.

Command key – The Apple Key (K) on the keyboard located next to the Space Bar. Pressed with other keys to perform special actions. Functionality is similar to that of the Control key on a Windows PC.

Communications Software – An application that makes it possible to exchange information with other computers.

Compatibility – The condition under which devices can work with each other.

Component – An object of the WOComponent class that represents a web page or a reusable portion of one.

Composite – A video signal that includes both display information and the synchronization and other signals needed to display it. There are monitor ports on the Apple IIgs for an NTSC composite monitor one that accepts signals that conform to the standards set by the National Television Standards Committee and for an analog RGB monitor.

Compression – The process of reducing the data size of a file.

Computer Account – A list of computers that have the same preference settings and are available to the same users and groups.

Computer – A machine that processes words and numbers faster than a food processor can slice potatoes. Not particularly creative or intuitive, but very good at repetitive tasks.

Configuration – A general-purpose computer term that can refer to the way you have your computer set up that is, the devices you have attached to it or to the way you have your computer set up to send information to a printer, a modem, or some other peripheral device.

Conform Film – To cut and arrange an original camera negative to match edits made in a digital editing system. Also, to assemble video or audio according to an Edit Decision List EDL. See cut list and EDL.

Conform Video – To change the frame rate of a video clip. For example, you can use the Cinema Tools Conform feature to change the frame rate of a PAL 25 fps video clip to film’s 24 fps rate. You can also conform a clip to its current frame rate, ensuring there are no frame rate errors within it.

Connect Time – The amount of time you spend accessing an information service.

Console – The Console application lets you see technical messages from the Mac OS X system software and Mac OS X applications. If you are programming or troubleshooting a problem, these messages may be useful.

Contrast Knob – A control on your video display that lets you adjust the contrast between the light and dark on the screen.

Control Panel Program – A program built into the Apple IIgs that lets you set the time of the built-in clock and tailor certain aspects of your computer system to suit your individual preferences like the color of text and background on the screen, the volume of the built-in speaker, and more.

Control – A key on the Apple IIgs keyboard that, when pressed in conjunction with another key, makes the other key behave differently. It controls the operation of other keys.

Controller Card – An interface card that tells your Apple IIgs how to work with one or two disk drives.

Co-Processor – A microprocessor on a card that overrides or works with the microprocessor on the main circuit board.

Copy-Protect – To prevent someone from duplicating the contents of a disk. Write-protect-Means to prevent changes to the contents of a disk by covering the write-enable notch on a 5.25-inch disk or by sliding the small, plastic tab to uncover the square hole on a 3.5-inch disk.

CPU – Central processing unit, a type of microprocessor. In current Power Mac, iMac, PowerBook, and iBook computers, the CPU is a PowerPC G3 or G4 chip. Earlier models contained PowerPC 601, 603, 604, 604e and Motorola 680×0 chips.

Crash, Freeze – A system malfunction of the operating system, application, or hardware device that locks up the computer, which then has to be restarted. A freeze is a system error that causes the cursor to lock in place.

CRM – Communications Resource Manager.

CRT – cathode ray tube, a video display device.

Cursor – Also known as a pointer, usually arrow or cross shaped, which is controlled by the mouse, trackpad, trackball, stylus, or joystick.

Cut and Paste – To move something from one place in a document to another. It’s the computer equivalent of using scissors to clip something and glue to paste the clipping somewhere else.

Cut List – A text file that sequentially lists the edits that make up your program. The negative cutter uses the cut list to conform the original camera negative. The cut list is a subset of the film list you can export from Final Cut Pro using Cinema Tools.

Cut – To remove text or pictures from a document by using the Cut command. The most recent clipping is stored on the Clipboard so you can paste it somewhere else if you want.

CVS – Concurrent Versions System, a programming code management system.
DAA – data access adapter a telephone line interface.

DAC – digital-to-analog converter.

Daisy Wheel Printer – A type of printer that produces professional-looking, letter-quality documents.

Daisy-Chaining – Stringing external devices together in a series. SCSI, USB, and FireWire technologies all allow such linking of devices in most cases.

Darwin – The core Mac OS X operating system, integrating Mach 3.0, operating-system services based on 4.4 BSD Berkeley Software Distribution, high-performance networking facilities, and support for multiple integrated file systems.

Data Base Application – A type of application that helps you keep track of lists of information. It makes it easy to recall, update, and cross-reference information.

Data Bits – The form in which the computer sends and receives information as a string of bits.

Data Compression – Data compression is the process by which data is reduced in size when it is sent from your computer to your modem, and then expanded to its original size by the receiving modem. Since the transmitted data has been compressed, it takes less time to send.

Data Disk – A disk that contains your work letters, budgets, pictures, and so on.

Data Rate – Amount of information per second.

Database Server – A data storage and retrieval system. Database servers typically run on a dedicated computer and are accessed by client applications over a network.

Database – An electronic list of records that can be sorted and/or searched.

Data – Information, especially raw or unprocessed information. Plural of datum. Information processed by a computer.

dB – Decibels.

DB9 Serial Port – Rack-mounted servers typically have a DB9 serial port, which gives system administrators a way to access a server remotely through a serial console session even if the network is down.

DCD – Stands for Data Carrier Detect. A handshake signal used to regulate the flow of data between the computer and a peripheral device.

DCE Data Communication Equipment – Data Communication Equipment DCE is the modem connected to your computer. The DCE speed is the speed of data transfer between the modem and the telephone line. The DCE speed is also called the line speed.

DDR – Stands for Double Data Rate, and it’s used to describe memory that transfers data twice per clock cycle, theoretically yielding twice the data transfer rate of standard SDRAM.

Default – A value or setting that a device or program automatically selects if you do not specify a substitute. For example, word processors have default margins and default page lengths that you can override or reset. You can select the default action by pressing Return or Enter. The default action in a Mac OS 9 dialog is usually represented by the button with a double outline. The default action in Mac OS X is represented by the button that is pulsing.

Defragmentation – Arranging fragments of data into contiguous blocks in RAM or storage memory also called optimizing.

Delete – A key that you can press in some applications to erase the character to the left of the cursor.

Desk Accessory – A mini-application that you can use without leaving your main application.

Device Control – Technology that allows Final Cut Pro to control an external hardware device, such as a video deck or camera.

Device – A device that is connected to the computer, like a printer or a modem.

DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol-A protocol used to distribute IP addresses to client computers. Each time a client computer starts up, the protocol looks for a DHCP server and then requests an IP address from the DHCP server it finds. The DHCP server checks for an available IP address and sends it to the client computer along with a lease period-the length of time the client computer may use the address.

Dial-In Service – A network service that enables users to access network resources, such as printers and file servers, from a remote location via a modem.

Digital Signal – A signal that is sent and received in discrete intervals. An analog signal-is a signal that varies continuously over time rather than being sent and received in discrete intervals.

DV (digital video) – A digital tape-recording format using approximately 5:1 compression to produce Betacam quality on a very small cassette.

Digitize – Converting linear analog data into digital data which can be used by a computer.

Digitizer – A peripheral device that takes a photo and converts the image into a form that the computer can process, save on a disk, display on the screen, or print.

DIMM – Dual Inline Memory Module.

Direct Delivery – A type of electronic mail system in which messages are sent directly from one computer to another.

Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum DSSS – A radio frequency-based transmission method defined by the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standard that uses a radio transmitter to spread data packets over a fixed range of the frequency band being used.

Direct to Java Client Assistant – A tool used to customize a Direct to Java Client application.

Direct to Java Client – A WebObjects development approach that can generate a Java Client application from a model.

Direct to Web Assistant – A tool that used to customize a Direct to Web application.

Direct to Web Template – A component used in Direct to Web applications that can generate a web page for a particular task for example, a list page for any entity.

Direct to Web – A WebObjects development approach that can generate a HTML-based Web applications from a model.

Direct-Connect Modem – A modem that you plug directly into a phone jack. The advantage of a direct-connect modem over an acoustic-coupler modem is that the phone signals don’t have to travel through the handset, so there’s less distortion. An acoustic-coupler modem-is a type of modem with a cradle that uses a standard telephone handset for transmission.

Directory Domain Hierarchy – A way of organizing local and shared directory domains. A hierarchy has an inverted tree structure, with a root domain at the top and local domains at the bottom.mdirectory node-See directory domain.

Directory Domain – A specialized database that stores authoritative information about users and network resources; the information is needed by system software and applications. The database is optimized to handle many requests for information and to find and retrieve information quickly. Also called a directory node or simply a directory.

Directory Services – Services that provide system software and applications with uniform access to directory domains and other sources of information about users and resources.

Directory – A list of all the files on a disk. Sometimes called a catalog. A subdirectory-is a directory within a directory that usually contains related documents; used to organize the information on large-capacity disks.

Disk Drive Controller Card – A circuit board that provides a connection between the Apple IIgs and one or two disk drives.

Disk Drive Light – A light that comes on when your disk drive is loading from or storing on a disk. Sometimes called an in-use light. When the light is off, it’s safe to put disks in or take disks out. When the light is on, don’t remove the disk inside.

Disk Drive – A device that loads information from a disk into the memory of the computer and saves information from the memory of the computer onto a disk.

Disk Image – A file that when opened using Disk Copy creates an icon on a Mac OS desktop that looks and acts like an actual disk or volume. Using NetBoot, client computers can start up over the network from a server-based disk image that contains system software.

Disk – A platter made of magnetic or optically etched material on which data can be written.

Display PostScript – The graphic device interface implemented in Mac OS X. It is the most common display system of UNIX systems, and has the advantage of being able to spool the screen display directly to a PostScript printer, unlike Windows systems and Mac OS systems earlier than Mac OS X, which have to translate the screen display through the use of printer drivers.

Display – A general term to describe what you see on your screen when you’re using a computer.

Distributed File Sharing – A type of file service in which users can share the content of their hard disks with other users on the network. Centralized file service-is a file service that is provided by a central server accessed by network users.

DMA – Stands for Direct Memory Access, in which a computer’s subsystems can directly access memory without going through the system’s main processor. This translates to a performance advantage for a computer that uses direct memory access.

DNS Domain Name System – A distributed database that maps IP addresses to domain names. A DNS server, also known as a name server, keeps a list of names and the IP addresses associated with each name.

Dock – A row of icons at the bottom of your screen. The Dock gives you instant access to the things you use most. You use the Dock to organize documents, applications, websites, servers, folders, and more. The Dock combines and adds to the functionality of the Windows Start menu and Taskbar.

Document – Information you create with a computer program. It could be a memo, a picture, a budget. Also called a file.

DOS 3.2 – Stands for Disk Operating System. An early Apple II operating system; 3.2 is the version number.

DOS 3.3 System Master – A disk that used to be packed with 5.25-inch disk drives. It performed some of the functions now handled by the Apple IIgs System Disk. It has programs for initializing disks, for copying DOS 3.3-based applications and documents, and more.

DOS 3.3 – One of three operating systems used by the Apple IIgs; 3.3 is the version number.

Dot Matrix Printer – A type of printer that forms characters with patterns of dots.

Double-Click – To position the pointer where you want an action to take place, and then press and release the mouse button twice in quick succession without moving the mouse.

Double-High Resolution – A graphics mode that can display information using a rectangular array of 560 horizontal by 192 vertical dots for black and white and 140 horizontal by 192 vertical dots for 16 colors.

Down Arrow – A key that you can press in some applications to make the cursor move down one line.

Downconverted Video – Video created by converting high definition video such as 24P to standard definition video NTSC or PAL.

Download – Transferring data from one computer to another. Downloading is receiving; uploading is sending.

DPI – Dots per inch; the number of dots that can be placed horizontally and vertically. This is also known as printer resolution.

Drag-To position the pointer on something, press and hold the mouse button, move the mouse, and release the mouse button. When you release the mouse button, you either highlight a selection or move an object to a new location.

Drill-and-Practice Application – A type of educational application that presents information, tests your retention of the material, and gives feedback based on your answers.

Drive Number – An application might ask you to distinguish between disk drives by number. Drive 1 is the drive of its type connected closest to the computer or to the connector labeled Drive 1 on a disk drive controller card. Drive 2 is the drive of its type connected to drive 1 or to the connector labeled Drive 2 on a disk drive controller card.

Driver – A file that tells a computer how to communicate with a peripheral such as a CD-ROM drive or printer.

Drop Box – A shared folder with privileges that allow other users to write to, but not read, the folder’s contents. Only the owner has full access. Drop boxes should only be created using AFP. When a folder is shared using AFP, the ownership of an item written to the folder is automatically transferred to the owner of the folder, thus giving the owner of a drop box full access to and control over items put into it.

Drop Frame Timecode – NTSC timecode that skips ahead in time by two frame numbers each minute, except for minutes ending in 0, so that the end timecode total agrees with the actual elapsed clock time. Timecode numbers are skipped, but actual video frames are not skipped. This skipping corrects for NTSC’s actual frame rate of 29.97 fps. It corrects for an inaccuracy of 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour in comparison to actual elapsed time when non-drop frame timecode is used. To avoid confusion, drop frame timecode should be avoided in film-based productions.

Dropped Frames – Frames that are not captured. If computer performance is impeded or if the scratch disk is not fast enough, frames may be dropped during the capture process. When a frame is dropped during capture, the frame before it is repeated. Dropped frames can result in an incorrect cut list and interfere with the reverse telecine process.

DSL – Digital Subscriber Line.

DSR – Stands for Data Set Ready. A handshake signal used to regulate the flow of data between the computer and a peripheral device.

DSSS – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum, a type of modulation used in wireless networks

DTE Data Terminal Equipment – Data Terminal Equipment DTE is the computer to which your modem is connected. The DTE speed is the speed of data transfer between your computer and your modem.

DTR Data Terminal Ready – A Data Terminal Ready DTR signal is sent by the computer to the modem to indicate that the computer the data terminal is ready to communicate with the modem. DTR can also be used for other purposes, such as signaling the modem to hang up the phone called hardware hangup.

Dual System Production – Any production using separate devices to record the image and the audio. Always used in film productions and often used in 24P productions. Also known as double system production.

Dupe List – A film list Cinema Tools users can export, which indicates duplicate uses of the same film source material in an edited program.

Duration – The total running length of a video clip or other media element.

DV Format – DV is a digital video format. Common formats such as 8mm, Hi8, VHS, and SVHS are analog formats. DV differs from analog formats because it stores all video and audio information as data in a digital form. Analog is an electronic signal that loses strength every time the video is copied from one medium to another. With the DV format, there is no loss of quality when video is copied between the DV device and computer. When video is captured to a computer, edited, then exported back to tape, the quality of the original footage is retained.

DVD – Digital Versatile Disc or Digital Video Disc

DVD-R and DVD-RW DVD-R is a single-writeable format (similar in nature to CD-R). DVD-RW is a rewriteable format (similar in nature to CD-RW). DVD-RW has a read-write capacity of 4.7 gigabytes per side. It can be rewritten up to about 1000 times. Both DVD-R and DVD-RW were developed and approved by the DVD Forum (http://www.dvdforum.org), of which Apple is a member. Once written, DVD-R and DVD-RW discs can be used in many different drives and players. Check with the manufacturer of, or consult the documentation which came with, your player to find out if it is compatible with DVD-R media.

DVD+RW – A rewriteable format of similar capacity to DVD-RW, but was developed separately by the DVD+RW Alliance (http://www.dvdrw.com/).

DVD-RAM – Digital Versatile Disc-Random Access Memory. A high storage capacity, writable version of DVD technology good for backing up hard disk data.

DVD-ROM – Short for digital versatile disc or digital video disc, a new type of CD-ROM that holds a minimum of 4.7GB gigabytes, enough for a full-length movie. Often shortened to DVD. The DVD specification supports discs with capacities of from 4.7GB to 17GB and access rates of 600KBps to 1.3 MBps. One of the best features of DVD drives is that they are backward-compatible with CD-ROMs. This means that DVD players can play earlierCD-ROMs as well as later DVD-ROMs. Newer DVD players can also read CD-R discs.

DVI – Digital Visual Interface. DVI is a technology developed by a consortium of companies that enables a system to store and display moving video images. A DVI connector is more advanced than a standard VGA connector. With DVI all content transferred over the interface remains in the loss-less digital domain from start to finish for high-quality digital images.

Dvorak Keyboard – A keyboard layout designed to increase typing speed and efficiency by locating the keys used most often in the home row. Also called the American Simplified Keyboard.

Dynamic Element – A dynamic version of an HTML element. WebObjects includes a list of dynamic elements with which you can build your component.

Dynamic IP Address – An IP address that is assigned for a limited period of time or until the client computer no longer needs the IP address.

Dynamic IP – With dynamic addressing, a device can have a different IP address every time it connects to the network. Dynamic addressing simplifies network administration because the software keeps track of IP addresses rather than requiring an administrator to manage the task. This means that a new computer can be added to a network without the hassle of manually assigning it a unique IP address. Many ISPs use dynamic IP addressing for dial-up users.

Dynamic Node ID Assignment – The AppleTalk addressing scheme that assigns node IDs dynamically, rather than associating a permanent address with each node. Dynamic node ID assignment facilitates adding and removing nodes from the network by preventing conflicts between old node IDs and new node IDs.

Echoing – When the modem is in command mode, it can transmit characters it receives back to the computer. This is called echoing. For example, if you enter a modem command in a telecommunications application, your keystrokes appear in the application window if echoing is turned on. You use the En command to turn echoing on and off.

Edge Code – Refers to frame counting codes found on the film edge. May be either the latent key numbers used by Cinema Tools or ink numbers added to the edge of workprints. Also known as a Key number-A number put along the edge of the film that identifies each exposed frame.

Edit Menu – A menu in most mouse-based programs that lists editing commands like Copy, Cut, and Paste.

EDL Edit Decision List – A text file that sequentially lists all of the edits and individual clips used in a sequence. EDLs are used to move a project from one editing application to another, or to coordinate the assembly of a program in a tape-based online editing facility.

EDO – extended data out. A type of RAM.

IEEE The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. – An organization dedicated to promoting standards in computing and electrical engineering.

EJB Container – The execution environment of EJB components. It’s managed by an EJB server.

Eject – To remove a disk from a disk drive.

Electronic Mailbox – An area on a mail server that stores a user’s messages until they are requested by the user.

Email – Stands for electronic mail. A network service that allows users to send messages and files to each other. Email often includes abilities to send, receive, sort, and save messages.

Encoding – An algorithm for converting files into a series of 7-bit ASCII characters that can be transmitted over the Internet. Uuencode Unix-to-Unix encode is a popular encoding algorithm used to transfer files between different platforms such as Unix, Windows, and Macintosh. Uuencoding is especially popular for sending e-mail attachments. Another popular encoding algorithm is BinHex, which is often used for transferring Macintosh files, such as PICT graphics files.

Encrypt – A way to protect data by coding it so that it appears to be a random sequence of characters. Only those with the password can unscramble the data.

Enter – A key on the numeric keypad that usually has the same function as Return; that is, it confirms a choice or tells a program you’re ready to proceed.

Enterprise Object – A Java object that conforms to the key-value coding protocol and whose properties instance data can map to stored data. An enterprise object brings together stored data with methods for operating on that data.

Entity – In Entity-Relationship modeling, a distinguishable object about which data is kept. For example, you can have an Employee entity with attributes such as lastName, firstName, address, and so on. An entity typically corresponds to a table in a relational database; an entity’s attributes, in turn, correspond to a table’s columns.

EOModeler – A tool used to create and edit models.

Error Correction – Error correction is the process by which errors that occur during data transfer are detected and, if possible, corrected. Modems use error-correction protocols to correct errors. These protocols monitor the received data and request the retransmission of faulty data.

Error Message – The computer’s way of alerting you to a failure in the communication process; often accompanied by a beep.

Esc – A key you can press in some applications to get back to the menu or to cancel a procedure that’s in progress.

Ethernet – A 10/100/1000 megabits-per-second Mbps network standard originally developed by Digital Equipment Corporation, Intel Corporation, and Xerox Corporation. The Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers helped develop the specifications for the Ethernet standard IEEE 802.3. A protocol for communication and file transfer across a network.

ETSI(European Telecommunications Standards Institute) – European Telecommunications Standards organization (www.esti.org).

Even Parity – An error-checking system in which the sending device adds an extra bit set to 0 or 1 as necessary to make all the 1 bits add up to an even number. The receiving device adds the 1 bits and if the total is an even number, it assumes the message came through intact.

Everyone – Any user who can log in to a file server-a registered user or guest, an anonymous FTP user, or a Web site visitor.

EXIF–Exchangeable Image File Format. Standard for storing interchange information in image files. This format is part of the DCF standard created by JEITA (http://www.jeita.or.jp/) to support interoperability between imaging devices. Many digital cameras use the EXIF format.

Export – The Network File System NFS term for sharing.

Extended 80-Column Card – An interface card used in other models of the Apple II that adds 64K of memory and makes it possible for the computer to display information in 80-column format instead of the standard 40-column format.

Extended Desktop – A feature whereby you connect two displays to the computer and use both displays at the same time, using the second display to extend the size of the Mac OS desktop.

Extension – Short for system extension. Small bits of code used to enhance the operating system. Mac OS X does not use extensions, Mac OS 9 and earlier does.

Fall Forward – or decrease fall back the speed they are using, without reconnecting. This process takes place when the line conditions change-for example, if the amount of static on the line increases, the modems can fall back to a speed that is reliable even with the increased noise level. The process is almost instantaneous. You use the %En, -Kn, and -Qn commands to control fallback/fallforward.

Failover – A server with failover capabilities is one in which its functions are assumed by secondary systems in the event that primary systems fail or are going through scheduled downtime. Failover is one of the aspects of making a system fault-tolerant.

Fault Tolerance – A system’s ability to respond gracefully in the face of a hardware or software failure. This ranges from the ability to continue to operate in the event of a power failure to the ability for a mirror system to take over in the event that a system fails altogether.

Faulting – A mechanism used by WebObjects to increase performance whereby destination objects of relationships are not fetched until they are explicitly accessed.

FCC(Federal Communications Commission) – U.S. government agency responsible for communications regulation (www.fcc.gov).

Fetch – In Enterprise Objects Framework applications, to retrieve data from the database server into the client application, usually into enterprise objects. foreign key An attribute in an entity that gives it access to rows in another entity. This attribute must be the primary key of the related entity. For example, an Employee entity can contain the foreign key deptID, which matches the primary key in the entity Department. You can then use deptID as the source attribute in Employee and as the destination attribute in Department to form a relationship between the entities.

FHSS(Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum) – A radiowave transmission technique that rapidly changes frequencies in a pattern that is known to the sender and receiver.

Fiber-Optic Cable – A transmission medium that uses light to send a signal through a glass-based fiber.

Fibre Channel – A data-transmission technology that allows high-speed transfers at speeds of up to 1Gbps. Fibre channel is faster than other data transfer interfaces, such as SCSI or ATA. Fibre channel can use twisted pair, coaxial cable, or optical fibre as its cabling medium.

Field Dominance – Refers to the field that occurs first in an interlaced video frame. If only one field is captured, field 1 dominance means that only field 1 is captured and field 2 dominance means that only field 2 is captured.

Field – A word you’ll run across in data base applications and ads for data base applications. It refers to a category of information. If your data base is an address book, name and address will be two of the fields.

Field – Half of an interlaced video frame consisting of the odd or the even scan lines. Alternating video fields are drawn every 1/60 of a second in NTSC video 1/50 of a second in PAL to create the perceived 30 fps video 25 fps PAL. There are two fields for every frame, an upper field and a lower field. It is possible to capture only one field of each frame.

File Management – A general term for copying files, deleting files, and for other housekeeping chores involving the contents of disks.

File Menu – A menu in mouse-based applications that lists commands that affect whole documents commands like Save, Print, and Quit.

File Server – Hardware and/or software that allows users to store and share documents, folders, and applications over a network.

File Sharing – A built-in feature of the Mac OS that enables users to share the contents of their hard disks with other users on the network.

File System – Refers to the way in which files are named and where they are placed logically for storage and retrieval. In Mac OS X, files are placed in a hierarchical tree structure, either in directories or subdirectories.

File – A collection of information that you store on a disk. Also called a document.

Filename – The name you give your file document before you save it on a disk.

Film List – A text file you give to the negative cutter to guide them in conforming the original camera negative. The film list may contain one or more of the following-a cut list, a missing elements list, a dupe list, an optical list, a pull list, and a scene list. May also contain additional information for pulling the negative rolls, making duplicate negatives, making a workprint, or printing effects.

Filter – A screening method used to control access to your server. A filter is made up of an IP address and a subnet mask, and sometimes a port number and access type. The IP address and the subnet mask together determine the range of IP addresses to which the filter applies.

Finder – The application you use to navigate and organize files and folders. The Finder plays a role similar to that of Windows Explorer. You can customize Finder windows with your favorite tools and places.

Firewall – Software that protects the network applications running on your server. IP Firewall service, which is part of Mac OS X Server software, scans incoming IP packets and rejects or accepts these packets based on a set of filters you create.

FireWire – FireWire is Apple’s cross-platform implementation of a high-speed serial data bus defined by IEEE Standard 1394-1995 that is able to transfer large amounts of data between computers and peripheral devices. FireWire features simplified cabling and hot swapping, and provides a single plug-and-socket connection to which up to 63 devices can be attached with data transfer speeds up to 400 megabits per second. FireWire is designed to support much higher data rates than USB 1.0; both standards are expected to exist together, serving different device types. With the introduction of the new FireWire 800 standard, Apple now refers to the original standard as FireWire 400.

FireWire 400 – FireWire 400 refers to any FireWire port that conforms to either IEEE 1394-1995 or IEEE 1394a-2000 standard. For more information, see the definition for FireWire.

FireWire 800 – FireWire 800 refers to any FireWire port that conforms to the IEEE 1394b standard. This standard, which amends the IEEE 1394-1995 and IEEE 1394a-2000 standards, upgrades the prior standards by allowing for faster speeds (up to 800 Mbit/s), new cabling, and compatibility with the FireWire 400 standard. New cabling includes CAT5 unshielded twisted pairs and UTP5 glass and plastic optical fiber. The new amendment is fully interoperable with 1394a-2000 and 1394-1995 standards. It uses a 9-pin connector. By using a 9-pin to 6-pin or 9-pin to 4-pin FireWire cable, you can connect FireWire 400 devices to a FireWire 800 chain.

Firmware – Software programs or data that has been written onto read-only memory ROM. Firmware is a combination of software and hardware. ROMs, PROMs and EPROMs that have data or programs recorded on them are firmware.

FLEx File – A common telecine log file format. A telecine log is a file generated by the telecine technician during the telecine transfer. Records the key numbers of the original camera negative and the timecode of the video transfer, tracking the relationship between them.

Floppy Disk – 3.5 disks that hold 400 or 800 kilobytes of data. These disks and their associate drives were commonly used in the oldest Macintosh models.

Folder – An icon that represents a subdirectory. A way to group related documents together on a disk.

Font – A typeface that contains the characters of an alphabet, numbers, and some other letterforms such as punctuation marks. Size and style of characters bold, italic, and so on.

Footage Number – Part of a key number; refers to the four-digit number indicating the position on a film roll.

Footer – Text that appears at the bottom of every page or every other page in a document. A header is text that appears at the top of every page or every other page of a document.

Footprint – The surface area of a desk or table which is occupied by a piece of equipment. Can also refer to the amount of memory a software application takes up.

Form Feed – The way perforated printer paper is pulled into position for printing. Friction feed is the way a printer moves individual sheets of paper into position for printing. It’s the same way typewriters move paper into position.

Format – To divide a disk into sections where information can be stored. Disks must be formatted before you can save information on them.

Formula – An equation. By writing formulas to define relationships between the various numbers in your spreadsheet, you can try out different numbers, and the formulas will recalculate all the totals for you.

FORTH – A programming language.

Fortran – A programming language.

Found Set – The set of database entries shown in the Cinema Tools List View window. This set is called the found set because you use the Find command to display it.

fps – Acronym for frames per second.

Fragmentation – The breaking up of a file into many separate locations in memory or on a disk. It takes longer to retrieve files that are highly fragmented.

Frame Number – The last part of the key number. The frame number consists of the footage number and the frame counter, and indicates how many feet and frames into the film a particular frame occurs.

Frame – A single still image. Film and video are made up of a series of these images. While a film frame is a photographic image, a video frame contains one or more fields.

Frame Rate – In a movie, the number of frames per second.

Frames Per Second FPS – The number of frames displayed on screen per second. Also known as frame rate. When video is exported to a QuickTime file, the different formats have different FPS rates. Lower FPS rates produce smaller files.

Framework – A framework is a type of bundle that packages a dynamic shared library with the resources that the library requires, including header files and reference documentation. Mac OS X uses frameworks.

Free-Form Data Base – A data base that lets you enter information in paragraph form instead of by categories and designate key words that you can search for later.

Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum FHSS – A radio frequency-based transmission method defined by the IEEE 802.11 wireless LAN standard that uses a technique by which the signal transmitted hops among several frequencies at a specific rate and sequence as a way of avoiding interference.

Friction Feed – The way a printer moves individual sheets of paper into position for printing. It’s the same way typewriters move paper into position. Form feed is the way perforated printer paper is pulled into position for printing.

FTP File Transfer Protocol – A protocol that allows computers to transfer files over a network. FTP clients using any operating system that supports FTP can connect to a file server and download files, depending on their access privileges. Most Internet browsers and a number of freeware applications can be used to access an FTP server.

Full-Duplex Modem – A modem that echoes information it receives back to the sending computer. Most commercial information services are full-duplex.

Function Key – A key that tells the application to carry out a particular activity or function print a document, save a document, and so on. Some applications use the number keys on the numeric keypad as function keys.

Function – A built-in formula you can use to calculate an average, a square root, and the like.
G3 and G4 – Generation 3, the third generation of PowerPC microprocessors, including the PPC 740 and PPC 750. The RISC-based PowerPC processing chips designed by Apple, IBM, and Motorola.

Garbage – A string of meaningless characters that bears no resemblance to your document. It’s an indication that your computer and peripheral device are using different bauds or data formats.

Gateway – A combination of hardware and software that enables networks using different protocols to communicate with one another. For example, a gateway can connect an AppleTalk network with a network using non-AppleTalk protocols such as TCP/IP.

GB – Gigabytes.

Gigabyte – One thousand actually 1024 megabytes. A term used to describe RAM or hard disk storage space. Abbreviation-GB, Gig.

Gigahertz – Abbreviated as GHz. One GHz represents one billion cycles per second.

GND – ground.

GNU (pronounced “guh-NEW”) Compiler Collection (GCC) – A program that converts programming statements into machine language. GCC takes the lines of code written by a programmer and converts them into a form the computer can use.

Graphics accelerator – Also called an accelerator board. A type of expansion board that makes a computer faster by adding a faster CPU or FPU.

Graphics Mode – A way of displaying text and graphics on the screen. In graphics mode, images are formed by patterns of dots.

Graphics Tablet – A device for drawing pictures. A special pen sends out signals that are detected by wires in the tablet and sent as X and Y coordinates to the screen.

Graphics – Information presented in the form of pictures or images.

Group Directory – A directory that organizes documents and applications of special interest to group members and allows group members to pass information back and forth among them.

Group – A collection of users who have similar needs. Groups simplify the administration of shared resources.

Guard Tone – A guard tone is a tone emitted by the modem when it detects a carrier. Different countries use guard tones of different frequencies. For instance, the default guard tone for the United Kingdom is 1800 Hz.

Guest Computer – An unknown computer that is not included in a computer account on your server.

Guest User – A user who can log in to your server without a user name or password.
Hacker – A person who is on a first-name basis with RAM, ROM, and the microprocessor. A person who’d rather write application programs than use store-bought programs.

Half-Bridge – A device used to connect two remote networks over a telecommunications link.

Half-Duplex Modem – A modem that does not echo information it receives from the sending computer.

Half-Router – A router that is used to connect two or more remote networks over a telecommunications link. Each network is connected to a router, which in turn is connected to a modem. This combination of two half-routers serves, in effect, as a single routing unit. Also called a remote router.

Hand Controls – Computer accessories used mainly in games to move creatures and objects. Also used in simulation applications.

Handshaking – Handshaking is a method of controlling the speed of data transfer by signaling when each side of the connection is ready to receive data. This ensures that both sides can keep up and no data is lost. In hardware handshaking, the modem and computer exchange RTS and CTS signals over the connecting cable. In software handshaking, the modem and computer exchange XON and XOFF characters to start and stop data transfer.

Hard Disk-or Hard Disk Drive, or Hard Drive – Large-capacity, permanent storage for the computer used for storing applications and files, made of multiple disks housed in a rigid case.

Hardware – Those parts of the computer that you can see and touch. The computer and the machines that attach to it-the disk drive, printer, and other peripheral devices.

Header – Text that appears at the top of every page or every other page of a document. A footer is text that appears at the bottom of every page or every other page in a document.

HFS+ – hierarchical file system plus, also known as Mac OS Extended format, a data storage format.

HFS
– hierarchical file system, also known as Mac OS Standard format, a data storage format.

HID – human interface device, a class of USB devices.

High Definition Video – Refers to any of a wide range of video formats, including the 24P format, providing a higher quality image than standard video. Enhancements can include increased resolution, a wider aspect ratio, and progressive scanning.

High Resolution -A graphics mode that can display information using a rectangular array of 280 horizontal by 192 vertical dots.

High-Density Floppy Disk – A 1.4-megabyte floppy disk; the associated drive was commonly used in older Macintosh models.

Highlight – To select by clicking once on an icon or by clicking and dragging the insertion point across text in a document.

Hinting – Hinting creates a track for each streamable media track in the file that tells QuickTime Streaming Server how and when to deliver each frame of media. The hinting process performs in advance the required calculations, allowing QTSS to serve up a larger number of streams. Hinting also allows new codecs to be used without the need to upgrade the server.

Home Computer – A computer, like the Apple IIgs, that is small enough and affordable enough to have in your house. When you take a home computer to the office, it becomes a productivity tool.

Home Control Device – A device that can regulate the temperature of your home, turn lamps on and off, or monitor smoke detectors and burglar alarms.

Home Directory – A folder for a user’s personal use. Mac OS X also uses the home directory, for example, to store system preferences and managed user settings for MacOS X users.

Home Finance Application – An application that helps with budgeting, portfolio management, tax planning, and so on. Like a spreadsheet, only easier to use.

Home Row – The row of keys on the keyboard where the fingers of touch typists rest when they aren’t reaching for other keys. In the standard keyboard layout, the home row contains A, S, D, F, G, and so on. In the Dvorak keyboard layout, the home row contains what August Dvorak determined were the most frequently used keys A, O, E, U, I, and so on.

Hop – A unit count between networks on an internet. Signifies one router away.

HTML-HyperText Markup Language – A set of simple tags that tells a computer how to display the text, graphics, and other objects that comprise a Web page.

HTTP Hypertext Transfer Protocol – An application protocol that defines the set of rules for linking and exchanging files on the World Wide Web.

Hz – Hertz.
I/O Error Message – Stands for input/output. A message you get when there’s a problem with the way information is being exchanged with peripheral devices.

IANA – An organization responsible for allocating IP addresses, assigning protocol parameters, and managing domain names.

ICMP (Internet Control Message Protocol) – A message control and error-reporting protocol used between host servers and gateways. For example, some Internet software applications use ICMP to send a packet on a round-trip between two hosts to determine round-trip times and discover problems on the network.

Icon – A symbol like the one on the back panel of the computer that shows you where to plug in the monitor or a symbol on the screen that represents a disk, a document, or something else you can select.

IDE – integrated device electronics.

Identifier – In Cinema Tools, a combination of one or more letters, numbers, or both, that identifies a shot, scene, take, video reel, sound roll, lab roll, or camera roll.

Idle User – A user who is connected to the server but hasn’t used the server volume for a period of time.

IEEE 802.11 – The worldwide industry standard for wireless communications that allows for interoperability among 802.11-compliant equipment.

IEEE – The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., an organization dedicated to promoting standards in computing and electrical engineering.

IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol)
– An Internet protocol used by hosts and routers to send packets to lists of hosts that want to participate, in a process known as multicasting. QuickTime Streaming Server (QTSS) uses multicast addressing, as does Service Location Protocol (SLP).

IMAP (Internet Message Access Protocol) – A client-server mail protocol that allows users to access their mail from anywhere on the Internet. Mail remains on the server until the user deletes it.

Information Service – A large data base that you can subscribe to for news, stock quotes, and other services.

Infrared Technology – A communications method based on light waves that fall between visible and microwave on the optical spectrum.

Initializing – Formatting a disk for use in the computer. Initializing creates a new directory and arranges the tracks for the recording of data. Initializing erases all data on the disk.

Ink Number – A number added by the film lab to the edge of workprints and magnetic film sound tracks that can be used in conjunction with the key numbers. Also known as an Acmade number.

Input/Output – Abbreviated I/O. Refers to the means by which information is sent between the computer and its peripheral devices. Also known as I/O.

Input – Information traveling into the computer, like keypresses and mouse moves.

Insertion Point – The place where your next action will take place.

Installer – Software used to install a program on the hard disk of a computer.

Instant On – An advance in Apple’s patent-pending Skip Protection technology that dramatically reduces buffer, or wait, time for an instantaneous viewing experience with streaming video on a broadband connection.

Integrated Circuit – An electronic circuit including components and interconnections entirely contained in a single piece of semi-conducting material, usually silicon. Often referred to as a chip.

Integrated Software – A group of application programs, usually on one disk, designed to share data.

Interface Card – A circuit board you plug into one of the slots in the Apple IIgs to link the computer to a peripheral device.

Interface – Hardware or software that links the computer to a device.

Interlaced Video – A video frame format that divides the lines into two fields, each consisting of alternating odd and even lines, which are scanned at different times. Used in standard definition video.

Internationalization – The design or modification of a software product, including online help and documentation, to facilitate localization. Internationalization of software typically involves writing or modifying code to make use of locale-aware operating-system services for appropriate localized text input, display, formatting, and manipulation. Also known as localization.

Interpositive IP – A low-contrast positive film print made from an original camera negative. It is not projectable as a full-color image, since it has an orange mask on it like a negative. IPs are typically used as an intermediate step in creating opticals and duplicate negatives.

Inverse Characters – Inverse means opposite. If characters ordinarily show up as light characters on a dark screen, inverse characters would show up as dark characters on a light screen. Inverse is one form of highlighting.

IP (Internet Protocol) – A connectionless protocol used to transmit packets of data from one machine to another. TCP and UDP use IP for their host-to-host data communications.

IP Address-Internet Protocol Address – A computer’s unique Internet address such as 128.223.32.35 that identifies it on a TCP/IP-protocol network. Many computers also have a domain name assigned to them, which represents IP addresses as words that are easier to remember such as, apple.com.

IP Subnet – A portion of an IP network, which may be a physically independent network segment, which shares a network address with other portions of the network and is identified by a subnet number.

IrDA – Infrared Data Association.

IR – infrared.

IrTalk – An Apple proprietary infrared communications standard. Not compatible with IrDA.

ISO – International Organization for Standardization.

ISP – Internet service provider.

ITU – The ITU International Telecommunications Union, formerly known as CCITT, is an international organization which studies telecommunications technology and recommends international telecommunications standards. These standards enable different devices from different manufacturers to communicate with each other.
Jacket – A square of plastic that protects a 5.25-inch disk. You don’t remove the jacket and expect to ever use the disk again.

Java Client – A WebObjects development approach that allows you to create graphical user interface applications that run on the user’s computer and communicate with a WebObjects server.

Java Foundation Classes – A set of graphical user interface components and services written in Java. The component set is known as Swing.

Java Script – A scripting language used to add interactivity to web pages.

JDBC – Informally stands for Java Database Connectivity. An interface between Java platforms and databases.

JEDEC – Joint Electron Device Engineering Council.

JNDI Java Naming and Directory Service – Protocol that provides a standard API to naming and directory services.

Joystick – A peripheral device that moves creatures and objects in games.

JPEG – Joint Photographic Experts Group, a standard for the data compression of still pictures. JPEG compresses image files to yield a smaller file size. The trade off is that some image data is lost in the compression process. JPEG is therefore termed as a lossy format. JPEG is recommended when exporting a still image from a DV clip if the intent is to send the picture through email or use it on the World Wide Web.
Kernel Panic – A kernel panic is a type of error that occurs when the core kernel of an operating system receives an instruction in an unexpected format or that it fails to handle properly. When this happens in either Mac OS X or Mac OS X Server, white text on a black background is drawn on top of the last video image on the monitor before the error occurred. A kernel panic can also be caused by damaged or incompatible software or, more rarely, damaged or incompatible hardware.

Kernel – The complete Mac OS X core operating-system environment, which includes Mach, BSD, the I/O Kit, file systems, and networking components. Also called the kernel environment.

Key Frame Rate – The frequency with which key frames are placed into temporally compressed data sequences.

Key Frame – A sample in a sequence of temporally compressed samples that does not rely on other samples in the sequence for any of its information. Key frames are placed into temporally compressed sequences at a frequency that is determined by the key frame rate.

Key Number – A number put along the edge of the film that identifies each exposed frame. Also known as edge code. Edge code refers to frame counting codes found on the film edge. May be either the latent key numbers used by Cinema Tools or ink numbers added to the edge of workprints. Key numbers are typically superimposed by the telecine onto the edge of the video frames. Cinema Tools uses key numbers to help match digital edits back to the original camera negative. Key numbers consist of a key prefix, which is unchanging throughout an entire roll of film, and a frame number, which consists of a footage number and a frame count number. It also often has a frame type identifier. For example, in the key number KJ 291010 5867 +07 B, the key prefix is KJ 291010, the frame number is 5867 +07, and the frame type identifier is B.

Key Word – A word you designate when you’re entering data information into certain kinds of data base applications. Later, when you want to retrieve that information, you type the key word.

Key – An arbitrary value usually a string used to locate a datum in a data structure such as a dictionary.

Keyboard Buffer
– A special part of memory where keypresses are stored until the computer is ready to act on them.

Keyboard-Based Application – An application that accepts input from a keyboard.

Keyboard – One way to communicate with the computer. It looks like the keyboard on a typewriter, but programmers can make the keys do anything they want them to.

Keycode – In the Cinema Tools interface, the Keycode is the eight-character key prefix that consists of two letters and six digits, and is constant throughout a roll of film. For example, for the key number KJ 291010 5867 +07B, the Keycode is KJ291010.

Keynum – In the Cinema Tools interface, the Keynum is the second part of the key number for the first frame of the clip. It identifies where the frame appears in the camera roll by listing how many feet or half feet and how many frames into the roll the frame occurs. For example, for the key number KJ 291010 5867+07 B, the Keynum is 5867+07.

Key-Value Coding – The mechanism that allows the properties in enterprise objects to be accessed by name that is, as key-value pairs by other parts of the application.

kHz – kilohertz.

Kilobit – One thousand bits. Abbreviation-Kb

Kilobyte – One thousand (actually 1024) bytes.

K-Stands for kilobyte. The unit of measurement for computer memory-1 K equals 1024 bytes, and it takes one byte to make one character. The Apple IIgs has 256K of RAM random-access memory, expandable by 1 to 8 megabytes with a memory expansion card, and 128K of ROM read-only memory.
L1 – level 1 or first level, a type of CPU cache.

L2 – level 2 or second level, a type of CPU cache.

Label – A strip of paper you stick on a disk to identify it.

LAN (local area network) – A network maintained within a facility, as opposed to a WAN (wide area network) that links geographically separated facilities.

Language Card – An interface card with 16K RAM that can be connected to a 48K Apple II Plus so the computer can operate in Integer BASIC the first dialect of BASIC available for the Apple II computer and Applesoft BASIC.

Laser Printer – A printer that produces typeset-quality printing using laser technology.

Latent Key Number – A number added to the film edge during its manufacturing process. Also known as latent edge code.

Launch – Start an application.

Layer – A mechanism for prioritizing the tracks in a movie or the overlapping of sprites. When it plays a movie, QuickTime displays the movie’s images according to their layer-images with lower layer numbers are displayed on top; images with higher layer numbers may be obscured by images with lower layer numbers.

LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) – A standard client-server protocol for accessing a directory domain.

Lease Period – A limited period of time during which IP addresses are assigned. By using short leases, DHCP can reassign IP addresses on networks that have more computers than available IP addresses.

LED – light emitting diode.

Left Arrow – A key you can press in most applications to move the cursor one character to the left. In some applications, as the cursor moves to the left, it erases characters.

Light Pen – A peripheral device shaped like a pen that sends instructions to the computer when you point to choices on the screen. It works only with applications designed to receive input from the light pen.

Line Break – The end of a line of text on the screen or on a printed page. You can force a line break by pressing Return, or you can let the application break lines for you.

Line Feed
– Abbreviated LF. An advance to the next line.

LISP – A programming language.

Load Balancing – The process of distributing the demands by client computers for network services across multiple servers in order to optimize performance by fully utilizing the capacity of all available servers.

Load – To read data or programs into the computer from a disk.

local Area Network LAN – A communications network that serves users within a defined geographical area, usually for sharing access to files, printers, storage devices, and Internet- and intranet-based services.

Local Domain – A directory domain that can be accessed only by the computer on which it resides.

Local Home Directory – A home directory for a user whose account resides in a local NetInfo or LDAPv3 directory domain.

Local Router – An internet router used to connect AppleTalk networks that are in close proximity to each other. The local router is directly connected to each of the AppleTalk networks that it links.

Localization – The adaptation of a software product, including online help and documentation, for use in one or more regions of the world, in addition to the region for which the original product was created. Localization of software can include translation of user-interface text, resizing of text-related graphical elements, and replacement or modification of user-interface images and sound. Also known as internationalization.

LocalTalk – A type of AppleTalk network that is inexpensive and easy to set up. LocalTalk is commonly used to connect small- to medium-sized workgroups.

Locking – A mechanism to ensure that data isn’t modified by more than one user at a time and that data isn’t read as it is being modified.

Log In – When you first set up Mac OS X, you do not need to log in to your computer. If you want to log in each time you start up your computer, open System Preferences, click Login, click Login Window, and deselect Automatically log in. You can also turn off automatic login when you create a new user for the computer.

Log On – To establish contact with a computerized information service or other remote computer.

Logic Board – Also called the motherboard. The main circuit board of a microcomputer. The logic board contains the connectors for attaching additional boards. Typically, the logic board contains the CPU, BIOS, memory, mass storage interfaces, serial and parallel ports, expansion slots, and all the controllers required to control standard peripheral devices, such as the display screen, keyboard, and disk drive.

Logo – A computer language that encourages learning through discovery. Easy and fun to learn, but powerful enough for serious programming.

Look – In Direct to Web applications, one of three user interface styles. The looks differ in both layout and appearance. method In object-oriented programming, a procedure that can be executed by an object.

Low Resolution – A graphics mode that can display information using a rectangular array of 40 horizontal by 48 vertical blocks.

LPR Line Printer Remote
– A standard protocol for printing over TCP/IP.

LPT – little plastic thingies.
.Mac – A suite of Mac-only Internet services. .Mac includes email, online storage (iDisk), web home pages, Internet postcards (iCards), calendar sharing with iCal, information synchronizing with iSync, and backup and virus protection software.

M3U File – An audio metafile that is created using a text editor and saved to a web server. The file directs a user’s web browser to an MP3 playlist residing on the same web server and opens the user’s MP3 player.

MAC (Media Access Control) address – A computer’s unique hardware number for networking.

Mac OS X Architecture – Refers to how Mac OS X is designed, and how different application environments are connected together.

Mac OS X Server – An industrial-strength server platform that supports Mac, Windows, UNIX, and Linux clients out of the box and provides a suite of scalable workgroup and network services plus advanced remote management tools.

Mac OS X – The latest version of the Apple operating system, which combines the reliability of UNIX with the ease of use of Macintosh.

Mac OS – Macintosh Operating System.

Machine Language – The binary language of 1’s and 0’s that is the only language the computer understands. All other programming languages, like BASIC, have to be translated into this binary code before the computer can understand them.

Mach – The lowest level of the Mac OS X kernel. Mach provides such basic services and abstractions as threads, tasks, ports, interprocess communication IPC scheduling, physical and virtual address space management, virtual memory, and timers.

Macro – A command defined by you user-defined that tells the application to carry out a series of commands when you type the macro.

Mail Host – The computer that provides your mail service.

Mail Server – A computer with one or more hard disks for storing electronic messages and files.

Mail-Merge Application – An application that takes names and addresses from a data base and puts them into form letters.

Main Circuit Board – A large circuit board that holds RAM, ROM, the microprocessor, custom integrated circuits chips, and other components that make the computer a computer. Also called a circuit board.

Main Menu – The first menu you see in keyboard-based applications. It presents the application’s top level of options.

Make/Break Ratio – The make/break ratio is used in pulse dialing. It specifies the ratio of off-hook make time to on-hook break time for each pulse. You use the &Pn command to set the make/break ratio. Phone systems in different countries require different make/break ratios.

mA – Milliamperes.

Managed Client – A user, group, or computer whose access privileges and/or preferences are under administrative control.

Managed Preferences – System or application preferences that are under administrative control. Server Manager allows administrators to control settings for certain system preferences for Mac OS X managed clients. Macintosh Manager allows administrators to control both system preferences and application preferences for Mac OS 9 and Mac OS 8 managed clients.

Manual Unicast – A method for transmitting a live stream to a single QuickTime Player client or to a computer running QTSS or DSS. An SDP file is usually created by the broadcaster application and then must be manually sent to the viewer or streaming server.

Mass Storage Device – A device, like a hard disk, that can store the equivalent of dozens of disks.

Match Back – To match the edits of a video program sourced from film back to the original camera negative. All the edits to the video are listed in a cut list, which the negative cutter uses to cut the workprint and original camera negative.

Math Coprocessor – Also known as the floating-point arithmetic unit FPU. Adds additional arithmetic and trigonometric processing to that provided by the CPU. In PowerPC-based computers the FPU is part of the CPU.

MB/sec. – Megabytes per second.

Mbit – Megabit.

MB – Megabytes.

MBONE Multicast Backbone – A virtual network that supports IP multicasting. An MBONE network uses the same physical media as the Internet, but is designed to repackage multicast data packets so they appear to be unicast data packets.

Mbps – Megabits per second.

Media – Content such as DV clips, sound effects, music tracks, or still images.

Medium – The means by which devices on a network are linked together to communicate and share information. Types of media include physical cables as well as infrared light and radio frequency signals.

Megabit – One thousand kilobits. Abbreviation-Mb

Megabyte – One million bytes. A term used to describe RAM or hard disk storage space. Abbreviation-MB, Meg

Megahertz – Abbreviated as MHz. One MHz represents one million cycles per second. The speed of microprocessors, called the clock speed, is measured in megahertz. In addition to microprocessors, the speeds of buses and interfaces are also measured in MHz.

Memory Expansion Card – An interface card that you can connect to the memory expansion slot in the Apple IIgs to increase the memory by 1 to 8 megabytes.

Memory Paging – A technique used by virtual memory operating systems to help ensure that the data you need is available as quickly as possible. The operating system copies a certain number of pages from your storage device to main memory. When a program needs a page that is not in main memory, the operating system copies the required page into memory and copies another page back to the disk.

Memory Protection – A system of memory management in which programs are prevented from being able to modify or corrupt the memory partition of another program. Mac OS 8 and Mac OS 9 do not have memory protection; Mac OS X does.

Memory – Integrated circuits chips that store instructions for the microprocessor. There are two kinds of memory-temporary memory called random-access memory RAM and permanent memory called read-only memory ROM. The contents of RAM disappear when you turn off the power; the contents of ROM do not. The temporary holding area where data is stored while it is being used or changed; the amount of RAM a computer has installed.

Menu Bar – In mouse-based applications, the horizontal strip at the top of the screen that contains menu titles.

Menu – A list of choices.

MIBS (Management Information Bases Systems) – Virtual databases that allow various devices to be monitored using SNMP applications.

Microcell – A bounded physical space in which a number of wireless devices can communicate. Because it is possible to have overlapping cell as well as isolated cells, each device supports wireless standards that establishes the cell boundaries.

Microprocessor – The brain of the computer the processor of information.

MIDI Card – An interface card that lets you use your Apple IIgs as a music synthesizer or as a control device for electronic musical instruments.

MIDI – Stands for Musical Instrument Digital Interface. A software and hardware standard set by the music industry that allows different electronic instruments to communicate with each other and with computers.

MIME Multipurpose Internet Mail Extension – An Internet standard for specifying what happens when a Web browser requests a file with certain characteristics. A file’s suffix describes the type of file it is. You determine how you want the server to respond when it receives files with certain suffixes. Each suffix and its associated response make up a MIME type mapping.

MNP 10 EC Protocol – MNP 10EC is an error-correction protocol that is designed for correcting errors that can occur as data is transmitted or received over cellular telephone lines. MNP 10EC provides more efficient error correction than MNP 10.

MNP 10 Protocol – MNP 10 is an error-correction protocol designed to overcome the problems associated with poor telephone line conditions. This protocol is often used for cellular telephone connections. MNP 10 provides less efficient error correction than MNP 10EC.

MNP 4 Protocol – MNP 4 is an error-correction protocol, providing a standard way of correcting errors that can occur as data is transmitted or received. MNP 4 provides less efficient error correction than V.42.

MNP 5 Protocol – MNP 5 is a data-compression protocol, providing a standard way of compressing data for transmission in order to save transfer time. MNP 5 provides less efficient data compression than V.42bis.

Mode – A state that determines the computer’s behavior.

Model – An object of the EOModel class that defines, in Entity-Relationship terms, the mapping between enterprise object classes and the database schema. This definition is typically stored in a file created with the EOModeler application. A model also includes the information needed to connect to a particular database server.

Model-View-Controller – An object-oriented programming paradigm in which the functions of an application are separated into the special knowledge Model objects, user interface elements View objects, and the interface that connects them the Controller object.

Modem Server – A combination of hardware and software that enables many people to share a single modem.

Modem – A contraction of modulator-demodulator. A device that enables a computer or terminal to transmit over telephone lines by modulating, or converting, data from a digital to an analog form. When originating a call, a modem modifies its analog carrier signal to carry a digital signal; when answering a call, the modem extracts the digital signal from the modified carrier.

Modifier Track – A track in a movie that modifies the data or presentation of other tracks. For example, a tween track is a modifier track.

Modula-2 – A programming language.

Monitor or Display – Another term for display screen. The term monitor, however, usually refers to the entire box, whereas display screen can mean just the screen. In addition, the term monitor often implies graphics capabilities. You may encounter CRT cathode-ray tube displays, or flat panel displays.

Monitor – In iMovie, the window in the upper-left corner of the screen where clips or the movie can be previewed or played back. Like a television set without channels. It displays instructions from the application to you and shows what you’ve typed into memory.

Monochrome Monitor – A black-and-white, amber-and-black, or green-and-black monitor.

Mount Point – A string used to identify a live stream, which can be a relayed movie stream, a nonrelayed movie stream, or an MP3 stream. Mount points that describe live movie streams always end with an .sdp extension.

Mouse Button – The button on top of the mouse. You press it to choose from menus or when you want to move items around on the screen.

Mouse – A device that controls the movement of the cursor or pointer on a display screen. A mouse is a small object you can roll along a hard, flat surface. Its name is derived from its shape, which looks a bit like a mouse, its connecting wire that one can imagine to be the mouse’s tail, and the fact that one must make it scurry along a surface. As you move the mouse, the pointer on the display screen moves in the same direction.

Mouse-Based Application – An application that accepts input from a mouse.

MouseText – Special characters, like check marks and little apples, used in mouse-based applications.

Movie – A structure of time-based data that is managed by QuickTime. A QuickTime movie may contain sound, video, animation, or a combination of data types. A QuickTime movie contains one or more tracks; each track represents a single data stream in the movie.

MOV – The Apple QuickTime movie file extension used to name both movie redirect files and actual QuickTime media files.

MP3 (MPEG layer 3) – A popular format for compressing music.

MPEG-4 – An ISO standard based on the QuickTime file format that defines multimedia file and compression formats.

MPEG – Short for Moving Picture Experts Group, and pronounced m-peg, a working group of ISO. The term also refers to the family of digital video compression standards and file formats developed by the group. There are three major MPEG standards-MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4. The most common implementations of the MPEG-1 standard provide a video resolution of 352-by-240 at 30 frames per second fps. This produces video quality slightly below the quality of conventional VCR videos. MPEG-2 offers resolutions of 720×480 and 1280×720 at 60 fps, with full CD-quality audio. This is sufficient for all the major TV standards. MPEG-2 is used by DVD-ROMs.

MPEG-2 can compress a 2 hour video into a few gigabytes. MPEG-4 is a graphics and video compression algorithm standard that is based on MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 and Apple QuickTime technology.

MS-DOS – The operating system for applications designed to run on IBM and IBM-compatible personal computers.

MTA Mail Transfer Agent – A mail service that sends outgoing mail, receives incoming mail for local recipients, and forwards incoming mail of nonlocal recipients to other MTAs.

Multicast – An efficient, one-to-many form of streaming. Users can join or leave a multicast but cannot otherwise interact with it.

Multihomed – A server with multiple IP addresses.

Multihoming – The ability to support multiple network connections. When more than one connection is available, Mac OS X selects the best connection according to the order specified in Network preferences.

Multipath – The signal variation caused when diffused radio signals take multiple paths from transmitter to receiver.

Multistation Access Unit (MAU) – In a Token Ring network, a lobe or wiring concentrator that physically connects computers and other devices to the ring. Relays in the MAU provide for physical insertion to, and detachment from, the ring.

Multitasking – The concurrent execution of multiple programs. Mac OS X uses preemptive multitasking. Mac OS 8 and 9 use cooperative multitasking.

Music Application – An application that can teach you how to read music or help you compose music.

Music Synthesizer – A device that can generate a variety of sounds, including those of traditional musical instruments.

MX Record Mail Exchange Record – An entry in a DNS table that specifies which computer manages mail for an Internet domain. When a mail server has mail to deliver to an Internet domain, the mail server requests the MX record for the domain. The server sends the mail to the computer specified in the MX record.
Name Server – DNS Domain Name System-A distributed database that maps IP addresses to domain names. A DNS server, keeps a list of names and the IP addresses associated with each name.

Nanosecond – One billionth of a second.

NAT (Network Address Translation) – A technique sometimes used so that multiple computers can share a single IP address.

Negative Cutter – A professional who cuts the original camera negative according to a cut list generated by the digital editing system.

NetBIOS Network Basic Input/Output System – A program that allows applications on different computers to communicate within a local area network.

NetBoot Server – A Mac OS X server on which you have installed NetBoot software and have configured to allow clients to start up from disk images on the server.

NetInfo – The Apple protocol for accessing a directory domain.

Network File System NFS – A client/server protocol that uses TCP/IP to allow remote users to access files as though they were local. NFS exports shared volumes to computers according to IP address, rather than user name and password.

Network Installation – The process of installing systems and software on Mac OS X client computers over the network. Software installation can occur with an administrator attending the installations or completely unattended.

Network Number – A 16-bit number that provides a unique identifier for a network in an AppleTalk internet.

Network Services – The capabilities that the network system delivers to users, such as printing on network printers, file sharing on network file servers, or communicating through electronic mail.

Network Time Protocol NTP – Used for synchronizing client clocks.

Network Type – A term used to describe different types of networks, such as Ethernet and Token Ring.

Network – A pane in System Preferences used to enter settings to connect to a network, and an icon users see when they click the Computer button in a Finder window. Two or more computing devices connected together by wiring, cable, digital circuit, or other means. The Internet is a network that comprises thousands of computer networks.

New World ROM – Certain Macintosh computers made since 1998 use a software ROM in conjunction with a hardware ROM. This design is called ROM in RAM. In some cases, a particular Apple technology or product will only work with computers that have this design.

nfsd Daemon
– An NFS server process that runs continuously behind the scenes and processes reading and writing requests from clients. The more daemons that are available, the more concurrent clients can be served.

NMI – nonmaskable interrupt.

Node Number – A unique number used to identify each node on a network.

Node – An individually addressable device connected to an AppleTalk network, such as a computer or LaserWriter printer.

Non-Drop Frame Timecode – Normal NTSC timecode, where frames are numbered sequentially and there are 30 frames per second, 60 seconds per minute, and 60 minutes per hour. Because NTSC’s frame rate is actually 29.97 fps, non-drop frame timecode is off by 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour in comparison to actual elapsed time.

NSL Network Service Locator – The Apple technology that simplifies the search for TCP/IP-based network resources.

ns – Nanoseconds.

NTSC Composite Color Monitor – The standard video format defined by the NTSC, the National Television Standards Committee.

NTSC – Acronym for National Television Standards Committee, the organization that defines North American broadcast standards. The term NTSC video refers to the video standard defined by the committee, which is 29.97 fps, 525 lines per frame, and interlaced.

NuBus – A bus architecture that allowed a variety of components to be added to older Macintosh models by installing cards into expansion slots such as video capture cards and networking. NuBus is a different bus architecture than the newer PCI bus and the boards are not interchangeable.

Numeric Keypad – The number keys, on the right side of the Apple IIgs keyboard, that are laid out like the keys on an adding machine. You can use them interchangeably with the number keys on the top row of the keyboard. Also known as keypad.

NV-RAM – nonvolatile random-access memory.
Object – A programming unit that groups together a data structure instance variables and the operations methods that can use or affect that data. Objects are the principal building blocks of object-oriented programs. primary key An attribute in an entity that uniquely identifies rows of that entity. For example, the Employee entity can contain an EmpID attribute that uniquely identifies each employee.

Odd Parity – An error-checking system in which the sending device adds an extra bit set to 0 or 1 as necessary to make the total of 1 bits add up to an odd number. The receiving device adds the 1 bits and if the total is an odd number, it assumes the message came through intact.

Off-Hook – When a modem goes off-hook, it claims the telephone line to which it is connected. Taking a modem off-hook is equivalent to picking up a telephone to make or answer a call.

Offline Edit – The creative edit, where edit decisions are made. When the offline edit is finished, the material is often recaptured at high quality or an EDL is generated for re-creating the edit on another system.

OMF – Acronym for Open Media Format. An audio file format, supported by many Digital Audio Workstations, that allows all of the audio and edit points in an audio sequence to be exported as a self-contained file. OMF files are often given to an audio post-production facility, finished there, and then used as the final audio in a feature.

On-Hook – When a modem goes on-hook, it releases the telephone line to which it is connected, freeing the telephone line for other uses. This action, which is equivalent to hanging up a telephone, terminates the current data connection.

Online Edit – The final editing process, where all the decisions made in the offline edit are applied to the original camera negative or full-resolution video reels.

On-Line Mode – In on-line mode, data sent from the computer to the modem is transmitted to the remote modem, instead of being interpreted as AT commands. When you establish a connection with another modem, the modem is automatically placed in on-line mode.

On-Line – The condition of a device being connected or of data being accessible to the computer.

Open Architecture – A computer that has an open-lid policy it invites add-on devices.

Open Directory
– The Apple directory services architecture, which can access authoritative information about users and network resources from directory domains that use LDAP, NetInfo, or Active Directory protocols; BSD configuration files; and network services.

Open Firmware – Open Firmware is a cross-platform firmware standard for controlling hardware and is used by all PCI-based Mac OS computers. You can start up in Open Firmware when troubleshooting.

Open Relay – A server that receives and automatically forwards mail to another server. Junk mail senders exploit open relay servers to avoid having their own mail servers blacklisted as sources of spam. Also known as relay point.

Open Source – A definition of software that includes freely available access to source code, redistribution, modification, and derived works. The full definition is available at www.opensource.org.

Open Systems Interconnection OSI Model – A reference model for describing network protocols and devices by the International Standards Organization ISO. This model divides protocols into seven layers to standardize and simplify protocol definitions.

OpenGL-OpenGL enables the computer to display accelerated three-dimensional graphics using applications designed to take advantage of OpenGL, including graphics cards with RAGE II, RAGE Pro, RAGE 128 and Radeon based video 2D and 3D graphics APIs application program interfaces.

Operating System – An application that, among other things, controls the way information is loaded into memory, the way the computer works with the information, the way information is stored on a disk, and the way the computer communicates with a printer and other peripheral devices. ProDOS, DOS 3.3, and Pascal are three operating systems available for the Apple IIgs.

Optical List – A film list Cinema Tools users can export for the optical house to use in printing effects for film. The optical list describes transition and motion effects that you created in your digital edit.

Optical Printer – Rephotographs one or more film elements onto a new section of film. An optical printer can add or delete light from an image, create superimposed effects, or make scene transitions such as wipes, fades, and dissolves.

Opticals – Effects produced by an optical printer, including transitions and superimposed titles. See also optical printer.

Option Key – A key on the Apple IIgs keyboard that, when pressed in conjunction with another key, creates a special effect. On other models of the Apple II, this key is labeled Apple.

ORBS – Open Relay Behavior-modification System-An Internet service that blacklists mail servers known to be or suspected of being open relays for senders of junk mail. ORBS servers are also known as black-hole servers.

Original Camera Negative
– The negatives from the film shoot; the original source film. The original camera negative is what the negative cutter cuts after all the edits have been finalized in the digital editing system. There is only one original camera negative. Duplicate negatives can be made, but they are expensive. Also known as OCN.

OS – Operating system.

Output – Information traveling out of the computer.

Owner – The person who created a file or folder and who therefore has the ability to assign access privileges for other users. The owner of an item automatically has read and write privileges for an item. An owner can also transfer ownership of an item to another user.
Packet – One unit of information that has been formatted for transmission on a network. A packet includes user data as well as the control and addressing information needed to send the packet to the correct destination.

PAL – Acronym for Phase Alternating Line. A video format used by many European countries and other countries outside North America. The PAL standard is 25 fps, 625 lines per frame, and interlaced.

Parallel Device – A printer or other device that sends and receives data eight bits at a time over eight parallel wires. A serial device is a device that sends and receives data one bit at a time over a single wire.

Parallel Interface – The condition of a computer and a peripheral device exchanging information eight bits at the same time along eight parallel wires. A serial interface is the condition of a computer and a peripheral device exchanging information one bit at a time along a single wire.

Parallel Port – A hardware connection in which a group of data bits typically 8 bits is sent at one time. Printers and webcams, for example, use parallel ports.

Parameter – A parameter is an additional value that you must provide along with a command. For example, in the Hn command, the letter n stands for a parameter whose value can be either 0 or 1. You type the actual command as either H0 or H1. Most AT commands require at least one parameter, denoted in command descriptions by the letter n. When you enter an AT command, you must substitute a valid parameter value for n. A few commands require a second parameter, denoted by x.

Parent – A computer whose shared directory domain provides configuration information to another computer.

Parity – A way of checking data to make sure bits of data didn’t get lost or garbled during transmission.

Partition – A subdivision of a hard disk’s area that is defined and used as a separate volume.

Pascal – A programming language taught in high school and college computer-science courses because it stresses a systematic approach to problem solving.

Passive Star – A type of star topology that has a lower limit on the number of branches allowed and the total length of the cable.

Password – A secret word that gives you, but no one else, access to your data or to messages sent to you through an information service.

Paste – To put a copy of the contents of the Clipboard whatever was last cut or copied at the insertion point.

Pathname – The complete name of a document beginning with the name of the disk, also called the volume name, the name of the subdirectory it’s in if it’s in one, and the name of the document. The pathname begins with a slash, and the parts of the pathname are separated with slashes. It’s called a pathname because it describes the route to the document. Volume name is the name of a disk or its main directory.

PCI – Peripheral Component Interconnect, an industry-standard expansion bus.

PCMCIA or PC Card – Short for Personal Computer Memory Card International Association, and pronounced as separate letters, PCMCIA is an organization consisting of some 500 companies that has developed a standard for small, credit card-sized devices, called PC Cards. Originally designed for adding memory to portable computers, the PCMCIA standard has been expanded several times and is now suitable for many types of devices. There are in fact three types of PCMCIA cards. All three have the same rectangular size 85.6 by 54 millimeters, but different widths. Type I cards can be up to 3.3 mm thick, and are used primarily for adding additional ROM or RAM to a computer. Type II cards can be up to 5.5 mm thick. These cards are often used for modem and fax modem cards. Type III cards can be up to 10.5 mm thick, which is sufficiently large for portable disk drives.

PDF – Short for Portable Document Format, a file format developed by Adobe Systems. PDF captures formatting information from a variety of desktop publishing applications, making it possible to send formatted documents and have them appear on the recipient’s monitor or printer as they were intended. To view a file in PDF format, you need Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free application distributed by Adobe Systems.

Percent Symbol %
– The command-line prompt in the Terminal application. The prompt indicates that you can enter a command.

Peripheral Device – A device that is connected to the computer, like a printer or a modem.

Perl (Practical Extraction and Reporting Language) – Perl is a scripting language commonly used with web servers.

PHP-Hypertext Preprocessor – A scripting language embedded in HTML that is used to create dynamic Web pages.

PICT – A Macintosh picture file format that does not apply compression to an image. It is therefore termed a lossless format. PICT file format maintains the same quality level from copy to copy. The PICT file format is recommended when exporting a still image from a DV clip if the intent is to reuse the image in a movie in iMovie.

PILOT – Acronym for Programmed Inquiry, Learning, Or Teaching. A programming language that lets teachers design their own educational software. SuperPILOT is the Apple version of the PILOT programming language.

Pinfeed Paper – A stack of attached, perforated sheets designed to feed into a printer without much human intervention.

Pixel – Contraction of the words picture and element. In graphics mode, text and graphics are formed by patterns of dots called pixels.

PL/1 – A complex, but flexible programming language said to combine the best features of Fortran, a programming language suited to scientific applications, and COBOL, a programming language suited to business applications.

Playback Controls – In iMovie, the controls under the monitor and on the music palette. These controls are Play, Pause, Fast Forward, Rewind/Review, and Stop.

Playlist – A set of media files in the QTSS or DSS media folder specified to play one after the other or in random sequence.

Plotter – A device that prints charts and graphs by means of pens whose movements are programmed.

Pointer – A marker that moves across the screen when you move the mouse across your desk in mouse-based applications. Also known as a cursor.

Point-to-Point Protocol PPP – A protocol for dialup modem access. PPP support includes TCP/IP as well as the PAP and CHAP authentication protocols.

POP Post Office Protocol – A protocol for retrieving incoming mail. After a user retrieves POP mail, it is stored on the user’s computer and usually is deleted automatically from the mail server.

Port – A connector on the back panel of the Apple IIgs for connecting peripheral devices.

Portable Operating System Interface POSIX
– An operating-system interface standardization effort supported by ISO/IEC, IEEE, and The Open Group.

Portables – Apple hardware you can take easily from place to place, such as Apple’s iBook and PowerBook. Windows PC manufacturers sometimes refer to portables as laptops or notebooks.

POST – power-on self test.

PostScript – A language that is used to describe graphic objects on a printed page. A PostScript interpreter is software that executes a PostScript language program and turns the description of an object into bits in a frame buffer. PostScript is a trademark of Adobe Systems Incorporated.

Power Light – A light that tells you whether or not the computer is on.

Power Strip – A device that plugs into one three-hole, grounded outlet, but that can accommodate four or six three-pronged plugs. A must if you have more than two devices that need to be plugged into a grounded, three-hole outlet.

Power Switch – A rocker switch on the back of the computer that you switch on when you want to use your computer.

PowerPC – Any one of the RISC-based processing chips 601, 603, 604, 604e, G3, or G4 designed by Apple, IBM, and Motorola.

PRAM – Parameter RAM. PRAM stores date and time settings and other system preference data.

Predefined Accounts – User accounts that are created automatically when you install Mac OS X. Some group accounts are also predefined.

Preemption
– The act of interrupting a currently running task in order to give time to another task.

Preferences Cache – A storage place for computer preferences and preferences for groups associated with that computer. Cached preferences help you manage local user accounts on portable computers.

Prefix – The first part of a pathname the name of the disk and, if you like, the name of a subdirectory. Applications that ask you to type a pathname usually let you set a prefix so you don’t have to type the complete pathname every time you want to work with a document on a particular disk or in a particular subdirectory. Once the prefix is set, all you do is type the rest of the pathname.

Pre-Roll – Rewinding the tape in a camcorder to a few seconds before the point at which the user intends to start capturing video.

Presets – Initial default attributes you specify for new accounts you create using Server Manager. You can use presets only during account creation.

Press – To position the pointer on something and then hold down the mouse button without moving the mouse. To hold down a key on the keyboard.

Primary Group ID – A unique number that identifies a primary group.

Primary Group – A user’s default group. The file system uses the ID of the primary group when a user accesses a file he or she doesn’t own.

Print Buffer Card – A card that plugs into a printer interface card that lets your Apple IIgs send an entire document to the printer at one time so you can use your computer for other things while the document is being printed.

Print Server – A combination of hardware and software that stores documents sent to it over a network and manages the printing of the documents on a printer. A print server completely frees a computer of a printing task so that the computer is free to be used for other work. Background printing-is a software application that runs on a computer as a background process, allowing the user to work on other tasks while a document is being printed.

Print Spooler – A program that stores documents to be printed, thereby freeing memory and allowing other functions to be performed while printing goes on in the background.

Printer Access Protocol PAP – Printer Access Protocol. Used for spooling print jobs and printing to network printers.

Printer – A device that produces a paper copy of the information you create using the computer.

Privileges – Settings that define the kind of access users have to shared items. You can assign four types of privileges to a share point, folder, or file-read and write, read only, write only, and none no access.

Processor – Also called a CPU-Central processing unit, a type of microprocessor. In current Power Mac, iMac, PowerBook, and iBook computers, the CPU is a PowerPC G3 or G4 chip. Earlier models contained PowerPC 601, 603, 604, 604e and Motorola 680×0 chips.

ProDOS – Stands for Professional Disk Operating System which is the primary operating system for the Apple IIgs. ProDOS 8 and ProDOS 16 refer to versions of ProDOS designed for 8- and 16-bit microprocessors respectively.

Program Disk – A disk that contains an operating system and a self-starting application program.

Program Selector – A program that lets you switch application programs without restarting the computer.

Programmer – A person who writes computer programs.

Program – To write instructions for the computer to talk to the computer in terms it understands. n. A set of instructions that tells the computer what to do.

Progressive Download – Movie data that is pushed via HTTP to the client. The movie can be viewed by the user as it is being transferred. This is not a form of media streaming.

Progressive Video – A video frame format that progressively scans all lines in a frame. Interlaced video is a video frame format that divides the lines into two fields, each consisting of alternating odd and even lines, which are scanned at different times. Used in standard definition video.

Project Builder – A tool used to manage the development of a WebObjects application or framework.

Prompt – A character displayed on the screen to prompt the user to take some action. For example, a bracket prompt character is used in the Applesoft BASIC programming language.

Property – In Entity-Relationship modeling, an attribute or relationship. Attribute is an In Entity-Relationship modeling, an identifiable characteristic of an entity. For example, lastName can be an attribute of an Employee entity. An attribute typically corresponds to a column in a database table. A column-In a relational database, is the dimension of a table that holds values for a particular attribute. For example, a table that contains employee records might have a column titled LAST_NAME that contains the values for each employee’s last name.

Protocol Architecture – The system of network protocols that determines how the network’s components–such as devices, cable, and software–work together to provide network services to users.

Protocols – A formal set of rules for sending and receiving information on a network.

Proxy Server – A server that sits between a client application, such as a Web browser, and a real server. The proxy server intercepts all requests to the real server to see if it can fulfill the requests itself. If not, it forwards the request to the real server.

Public-Domain Software – Software that is free for the taking. You can get it at users-group meetings or through computer bulletin boards.

Pull List – A film list Cinema Tools users can export, in which cut list shots are listed in the order that they can be found on the negative rolls. The lab refers to a pull list when going through your negative rolls to pull shots for a workprint or original camera negative cut.

Pull-Down Menu – A menu that is hidden until you press on its title with the mouse.

Pulse Dialing – Pulse dialing is a method of dialing in which the modem sends a set of pulses for each number one pulse for the number 1, two pulses for 2, and so on.

Punchdown Block – A wiring distribution block that is usually located in a telephone wiring closet.
Qtaccess – The name of the plain text access file that contains information about users and groups who are authorized to view media in the directory in which the access file is stored.

QTSS QuickTime Streaming Server – A technology that lets you deliver media over the Internet in real time.

Quartz – One of the graphics services in Mac OS X.

QuickTime – A system software extension that allows the playing of synchronized video and sound clips on a Macintosh or PC. A technology from Apple for handling video, sound, animation, graphics, text, music, and 360-degree virtual reality VR scenes. QuickTime lets you experience more than 200 kinds of digital media with your Mac or PC including images, music, MIDI, and MP3.

QuickTime Player – An application, included with the QuickTime system software, that plays QuickTime movies.

QuickTime Pro – A version of QuickTime Player with advanced features, primarily the addition of editing capabilities.

Quit – The Mac command for quitting an application. Quitting an application on the Mac is the same as exiting it in Windows.
Radio-Frequency RF Modulator – A device that transforms your television set into a computer display device. Also known as RF.

RAID (Redundant Array of Independent Disks) – A hard disk array that either increases the speed of disk input-output or mirrors the data for redundancy, or provides both of these features. Users may access the RAID as if it were one drive, although it may be divided into multiple partitions.

RAM Disk – A cross between a disk and random-access memory. Like a disk, it must be formatted before you can put files on it; also like a disk, it must be addressed by its volume name disk name or by its slot number. As with RAM, the computer can access the information on it very quickly. Also like RAM, what’s stored on it is stored temporarily; when the power is turned off, the information on it is lost.

RAM – Random-access memory, sometimes referred to as main memory. The Macintosh RAM provides memory for system software and applications. In sleep mode, the contents of RAM are maintained. Shutting down the computer erases RAM contents. There are various types of RAM, including DRAM dynamic random-access memory and SDRAM synchronous random-access memory.

RCA – Radio Corporation of America.

Read-Only Memory – Abbreviated ROM. Permanent memory. Applesoft BASIC is stored in ROM along with other programs that regulate communication between the microprocessor and other parts of the computer system.

Read – To get information from a disk and put it in memory.

Record – The set of values that describes a single instance of an entity; in a relational database, a record is equivalent to a row.

Reference Movie – A .mov file created using a utility program like MakeRefMovie, available at no cost from Apple for Macintosh and Windows. The file contains the location of a streaming media file and can also contain the locations of multiple streaming files. A reference file linked from a web page, for example, can direct a client player to the on demand presentation encoded for its particular connection speed.

Referential Integrity – The rules governing the consistency of relationships.

Reflected Stream – A live broadcast delivered as a unicast stream. Movie and MP4 playlists also generate reflected streams.

Relational Database – A database designed according to the relational model, which uses the discipline of Entity-Relationship modeling and the data design standards called normal forms.

Relationship – A link between two entities that’s based on attributes of the entities. For example, the Department and Employee entities can have a relationship based on the deptID attribute as a foreign key in Employee, and as the primary key in Department note that although the join attribute deptID is the same for the source and destination entities in this example, it doesn’t have to be. This relationship would make it possible to find the employees for a given department.

Relayed Stream – A stream that is passed from one server to one or more other servers. Relays can also be used to generate a multicast stream. QTSS does not support relaying of MP3 streams.

Release Print – A positive print of a finished movie; the final product for distribution.

Remote Computer – The computer on the other end of the phone line; it can be across the room or across the country. You can use your Apple IIgs, a modem, and a communication application to communicate with a remote computer.

Rendering – The process of compositing elements together in a movie. This can include superimposing text on video or creating a transition on a clip. Rendering takes place any time the visual information for a frame of video needs to be modified.

Rendezvous – A protocol developed by Apple for automatic discovery of computers, devices, and services on IP networks.

Repeater – A device that amplifies an electrical signal received from one piece of transmission medium and passes it on to another, similar, piece of transmission medium. A repeater is commonly used to extend a cable beyond its recommended maximum length.

Report – A subset of the information in your data base. You may have a data base with information about your employees like their names, addresses, phone numbers, birthdays, social security numbers, and salaries. There are times when you want only a list of names and salaries that’s one report. Other times you want names and phone numbers that’s another report. You can generate all sorts of different reports from one data base.

Request – A message conforming to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP sent from the user’s Web browser to a Web server that asks for a resource like a Web page. Response is a message conforming to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP sent from the Web server to the user’s Web browser that contains the resource specified by the corresponding request. The response is typically a web page.

Reset Switch – A switch that restarts the computer in the event of a crash or freeze.

Reset – The key with a triangle on it that you can press in combination with Control and Apple key to restart an application.

Resolution – The degree of clarity of your display. A monitor has better resolution than a television set used as a monitor. An RGB color monitor has better resolution than a composite color monitor.

Response – A message conforming to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP sent from the Web server to the user’s Web browser that contains the resource specified by the corresponding request. The response is typically a web page. Request is a message conforming to the Hypertext Transfer Protocol HTTP sent from the user’s Web browser to a Web server that asks for a resource like a Web page.

Result Codes – A result code is a message the modem sends to the computer, indicating the result of an AT command or the status of a connection. If a telecommunications application is active on your computer, the result code appears on your screen. Result codes are reported either as numbers numeric or as words verbose. You use the Vn command to switch between these modes.

Retraining – Retraining is a process by which two connected modems can renegotiate the protocol and speed they are using, without having to reconnect. Retraining takes place when the line conditions change-for example, if the amount of static on the line increases. The process normally takes several seconds. You use the %En command to control retraining.

Return – A key that you can press to move the cursor to the beginning of the next line. Also used in many applications to accept choices or indicate that you’ve finished doing something and are ready to proceed.

Reusable Component – A component that can be nested within other components and acts like a dynamic element. Reusable components allow you to extend the WebObject’s selection of dynamically generated HTML elements.

Reverse Telecine – The process that removes the extra frames from 3:2 pull-down video, returning it to its original 24 fps frame rate. Reverse telecine creates a one-to-one relationship between the video and film frames so that the cut lists are accurate. Reversing the 3:2 pull-down can be accomplished with hardware in real time during capture, but if you do not have the proper equipment, you can use the Cinema Tools Reverse Telecine feature.

RGB Color Monitor – Stands for Red Green Blue. A type of color monitor that can do what is impossible on most types of color monitor display text in color and in 80-column format.

Right Arrow – A key you can press in most applications to move the cursor one character to the right.

RISC – Reduced Instruction Set Computing. A smaller set of commands that optimizes efficiency and speed in microprocessing. Because RISC chips use a smaller instruction set, they operate much faster than the older CISC Complex Instruction Set Computing chips used in Intel-based machines and in older Macintosh systems.

Roaming – The seamless movement of a wireless node between two microcells. Roaming usually occurs in infrastructure networks built around multiple access points.

ROM Disk – ROM chips on a memory expansion card that can contain application programs.

ROM – Read-only memory. The Macintosh boot ROM contains system command sets.

Router – A device that connects networks together, isolating traffic within each network. The networks can be of the same type for example, two Ethernet networks or of different types for example, Token Ring and Ethernet. A router receives data transmitted from other networks and retransmits it to its proper destination over the most efficient route. A bridge-is a device that connects two networks of the same type together such as two Ethernet networks. The connected networks form a single large network.

Row – In a relational database, the dimension of a table that groups attributes into records. A way of designating the number of characters that fit on the computer’s display.

RTAS – run-time abstraction services.

RTP (Real-Time Transport Protocol) – A network-transport protocol used for transmitting real-time multimedia content over multicast or unicast network services.

RTS Request to Send & CTS Clear to Send – Request to Send RTS and Clear to Send CTS are hardware-handshaking signals. When the computer is ready to send data, it sends a Request to Send RTS signal to the modem. When the modem is ready to receive data, it sends a Clear to Send CTS signal to the computer.

RTSP (Real Time Streaming Protocol)
– A protocol for controlling a stream of real-time multimedia content. Sources of data can include both live feeds and stored clips.

Rule Editor – A tool used to edit the rules in Direct to Web and Direct to Java Client applications.

Rule – In the Direct to Web and Direct to Java Client approaches, a specification used to customize the user interfaces of applications developed with these approaches.

Run – What applications do when the computer is carrying out their instructions.
Sample Rate – The number of samples per second used for audio. Higher sample rates yield higher quality audio than lower sample rates.

Save – To store an application or data on a disk, as opposed to storing it temporarily in the memory of the computer.

Scan – What the computer does when you first turn on the power switch. It starts looking scanning the slots for a disk drive controller card. It looks first at slot 7 or the corresponding port; if it doesn’t find a startup device there, it proceeds to the next-highest-numbered slot until it finds a startup device.

Scene List – A film list Cinema Tools users can export, which lists all the shots that are in the cut list with each shot listed only once. Scene lists are typically used to order prints of the shots in a program so that a workprint can be conformed prior to cutting the original camera negative.

Scene – In filming, a time and place setting for a series of one or more shots, typically tied together by a common story line or certain characters.

Scope – A group of services. A scope can be a logical grouping of computers, such as all computers used by the production department, or a physical grouping, such as all computers located on the first floor. You can define a scope as part or all of your network.

Screen – The part of the monitor where information is displayed. Like a movie screen, it’s the place where things are projected.

Scroll Arrow – An arrow on either end of a scroll bar. Clicking the scroll arrow moves the document one line. Holding down the scroll arrow causes continuous scrolling.

Scroll Bar – A rectangular bar that may be along the right or bottom of a window. Clicking or dragging in the scroll bar causes the view of the document to change.

Scroll Box – The inverse box in a scroll bar. The position of the scroll box in the scroll bar indicates the position of what’s in the window relative to the entire document.

Scroll – To move a document so you can see a different part of it.

Scrubber Bar – In iMovie, the timeline bar under the monitor or in the audio viewer that is used to position the playhead.

SCSI Address – A number between zero and seven that must be unique to each device in a SCSI chain. Fast and Wide SCSI devices will allow up to 15 SCSI IDs hexadecimal; however, the length restriction 3 meters is such that it is virtually impossible to link 15 devices together. Addresses are assigned on the drive via jumper pins — or, on an external device, via push button options.

SCSI Terminator – A device placed at the end of a SCSI chain to complete the circuit. Some SCSI devices are self-terminating, or have active termination, and do not require this plug.

SCSI
– Small Computer Systems Interface. A specification of mechanical and electrical standards for connecting certain peripheral devices such as CD-ROM drives, external storage drives, and scanners to a computer. SCSI has been replaced by USB and FireWire on newer Macintosh models.

SDP (Session Description Protocol) – A text file used with QuickTime Streaming Server that provides information about the format, timing, and authorship of a live streaming broadcast and gives the user’s computer instructions for tuning in.

SDRAM – synchronous dynamic RAM; used for the system to run the OS and Applications.

Search and Replace – To look for a particular word or phrase throughout a document and exchange it for another word or phrase you specify.

Search Policy – A list of directory domains searched by a Mac OS X computer when it needs configuration information; also the order in which domains are searched. Sometimes called a search path.

Sector – A part of a track. When disks are initialized for DOS 3.3, they are divided into tracks and sectors.

Select Button – A button on a printer that determines whether the printer should accept data from the computer or instructions from other buttons on the printer control panel like the line feed button or form feed button.

Select – In mouse-based applications, to designate where the next action will take place. To select something, you click on it or drag across it.

Serial Device – A device that sends and receives data one bit at a time over a single wire. A parallel device is a printer or other device that sends and receives data eight bits at a time over eight parallel wires.

Serial Interface – The condition of a computer and a peripheral device exchanging information one bit at a time along a single wire. A parallel interface is the condition of a computer and a peripheral device exchanging information eight bits at the same time along eight parallel wires.

Serial Port – One of two ports printer and modem on the back panel of the Apple IIgs designed for serial devices.

Serial Transmission – Supports modem, DSL, and ISDN capabilities.

Server or Host – A central computer dedicated to sending, storing, and receiving data from other computers on a network. The server or host provides services to other client computers on a network. On the Internet, a single computer often provides multiple host functions, such as processing e-mail, serving Web pages, and running applications.

Server – A network device that provides a service to network users, such as shared access to a file system a file server, control of a printer a print server, or storage of messages in a mail system a mail server.

Session – A period during which access to a WebObjects application and its resources is granted to a particular client typically a browser. Also an object of the WOSession class representing a session.

SGRAM – synchronous graphics RAM; used for displaying graphics by the system.

Shadow Image – A file, hidden from regular system and application software, used by NetBoot to write system-related information while a client computer is running off a serverbased system disk image.

Share Point – A folder, hard disk or hard disk partition, or CD that is accessible over the network. A share point is the point of access at the top level of a group of shared items.

Shared Printing
– A way to set up shared printing in which users send their documents directly to a printer. Before users can go on to other tasks, they must wait for their documents and all documents ahead of theirs to finish printing. Compare with background printing and print server.

Shelf – In iMovie, the area in the upper-right corner of the screen where DV clips are temporarily stored.

Shift – A key that you can press in combination with another key to get an uppercase letter or the upper character on a two-character key.

Short Name – An abbreviated name for a user. The short name is used by Mac OS X for home directories, authentication, and email addresses.

Shot – A continuous film recording that does not have any cuts. A shot is a subset of a scene.

Shuttle – In iMovie, previewing video forward or backward at double speed in the monitor by using the Fast Forward or Rewind button during playback.

Simplified Finder – A user environment featuring panels and large icons that provide novice users with an easy-to-navigate interface. Mounted volumes or media to which users are allowed access appear on panels instead of on the standard desktop.

Simulation – A computerized representation of something in action.

Size Box – A box on the bottom-right corner of some active windows that lets you resize the window.

Slash – A character used to separate the parts of a pathname.

Slide-Show Option – A feature of some applications that lets you arrange displays in a sequence so you can use them in presentations. The application changes slides after a certain time interval or when you press a certain key.

Slot Number – A way an application might ask you to describe the location of a peripheral device. There are seven general-purpose slots on the main circuit board for connecting peripheral devices to the computer. They are numbered from 1 to 7 with 1 on the left as you face the front of the computer. If your device is connected to a port instead of a slot, you can still use the application by typing the slot number that corresponds to the port.

Slot – A long, narrow connector inside the Apple IIgs that lets you connect a printer and other devices to the computer.

SLP Service Location Protocol DA Directory Agent – A protocol that registers services available on a network and gives users easy access to them. When a service is added to the network, the service uses SLP to register itself on the network. SLP/DA uses a centralized repository for registered network services.

smart port – When devices connected to the disk drive port appear to be connected to a card in slot 5 instead of slot 6, the disk drive port is described as a smart port.

SMB Server Message Block
– A protocol that allows client computers to access files and network services. It can be used over TCP/IP, the Internet, and other network protocols. Windows services use SMB to provide access to servers, printers, and other network resources.

SMB – NFS an export, or FTP protocols.

SMPTE (Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers) – The standardsetting organization that established the SMPTE standard timecode for video. SMPTE timecode is the most commonly used timecode format.

SMTP Simple Mail Transfer Protocol – A protocol used to send and transfer mail. Its ability to queue incoming messages is limited, so SMTP usually is used only to send mail, and POP or IMAP is used to receive mail.

SNMP Simple Network Management Protocol – A set of standard protocols used to manage and monitor multiplatform computer network devices.

SO-DIMM – small outline dual inline memory module.

Software Catalog – A book that describes software.

Software Pirate – A person who copies applications without the permission of the author.

Software – Instructions, usually stored on disks, that tell the computer what to do. Compare hardware.

Source Clips – The media files you start with when you begin editing. These are the files that are captured into your computer and linked to the Cinema Tools database before editing begins.

Space – A space is a long period of silence encountered during a modem connection.

Spam – Unsolicited email; junk mail.

Special-Interest Application – An application designed for a particular audience diagnostic applications for doctors, crop-rotation applications for farmers, and so on. Also called vertical-market software.

Specification – A detailed description of the components, requirements, resolution, dimensions, materials, etc., of a product. Knowledge Base keyword specsht.

Speech Synthesizer – An interface card that allows a computer application to imitate human speech.

Spreadsheet Application – An application that simplifies financial planning, cost estimating, and other number-crunching tasks. It is laid out in columns and rows.

Sprite – An animated image that is managed by QuickTime. A sprite is defined once and is then animated by commands that change its position or appearance.

S-Registers – S-registers are memory locations in the modem where modem settings are stored. You use the Sn=x command to change the setting in an S-register.

SSL Secure Sockets Layer – An Internet protocol that allows you to send encrypted, authenticated information across the Internet.

Standard Definition Video – Refers to the NTSC and PAL video standards. Also known as SD Video.

Star – A network layout in which cable and devices radiate from a central point.

Start Up – To load an application from a disk into the memory of the computer. Also called boot.

START13 – An application on the DOS 3.3 System Master disk that makes it possible to run DOS 3.2-based applications.

Startup Device
– The device, typically a hard disk, that contains the valid OS.

Startup Disk – A disk used to start up the computer.

Star-Wired Ring – A ring network in which the cable between devices passes through a central wire center called a multistation access unit MAU. See also multistation access unit.

Static IP Address – An IP address that is assigned to a computer or device once and is never changed.

Stop Bits – One or two bits that indicate the end of a character.

Store-and-Forward Device – A device, such as a mail server, that stores messages from one computer and then forwards the message to the destination computer when requested by the recipient.

Streaming – Delivery of video or audio data over a network in real-time, as a stream of packets instead of a single file download.

Structured Language – A type of programming language in which programs are built out of smaller subprograms. Programs that are planned in advance instead of designed on the fly. Pascal is an example of a structured programming language.

Subdirectory – A directory within a directory that usually contains related documents; used to organize the information on large-capacity disks.

Subnet – A grouping on the same network of client computers that are organized by location different floors of a building, for example or by usage all eighth-grade students, for example. The use of subnets simplifies administration.

Subscript – Text that appears slightly lower than the text around it. Superscript is text that appears slightly higher than the text around it.

Super Serial Card – A serial interface card manufactured by Apple Computer, Inc. You don’t need to use one with the Apple IIgs because the serial interface is built-in and can be accessed through the printer and modem ports.

SuperDrive – A combination CD-RW/DVD-R drive that can read and write CDs as well as DVDs that can be played in consumer DVD players.

Super-High Resolution – A graphics mode that can display information using a rectangular array of 640 horizontal by 200 vertical dots in 4 colors or 320 horizontal by 200 vertical dots in 16 colors.

Superimpose – To place an element such as text on top of a DV clip or other background.

SuperPILOT
– An Apple version of the PILOT programming language. PILOT is an Acronym for Programmed Inquiry, Learning, Or Teaching. A programming language that lets teachers design their own educational software.

Superscript
– Text that appears slightly higher than the text around it. Subscript is text that appears slightly lower than the text around it.

Supers – Short for superimposed. Overlays of images or text onto frames. For example, titles are superimposed onto frames.

Switch – A device that uses traffic isolation technology to reduce the number of stations per network segment.

Symmetric Multiprocessing SMP
– A feature of an operating system in which two or more processors are managed by one kernel, sharing the same memory, having equal access to I/O devices, and in which any task, including kernel tasks, can run on any processor.

Synchronizer Block – A small mechanical bench device with sprocketed wheels mounted on a revolving shaft. Located between film reels mounted on shafted rewinds, it accepts one strip of film and perforated magnetic sound track per sprocketed wheel. Once the film and track are locked onto the wheels, they can be placed in exact mechanical sync and will maintain this sync while they are advanced forward through the synchronizer block. The synchronizer block also keeps track of elapsed footage via a mechanical feet and frames counter geared to the sprocket wheels. Also known as a sync block, sync machine, or synchronizer.

Sync – Short for synchronization. When audio is in unison synchronized with the picture, they are said to be in sync.

Syntax Error Message – A message you get when you misspell a computer command.

Syntax – The rules that govern the structure of statements or instructions in a programming language or in an operating system.

System Disk – Disk containing an application with programs that copy, delete, rename and in other ways manipulate files and disks.

System Operator – Abbreviated SYSOP. The human operator of a computerized bulletin board.

System Preferences – An application you use to configure settings for your network, mouse cursor speed, desktop background, user accounts, display resolution, and more. System Preferences has functionality similar to that of the Windows Control Panel.

System – A basic computing system including a monitor, a keyboard and mouse or trackpad, and a box that houses the computer’s central processing unit CPU or microprocessor, memory RAM chips, disk drives, external ports, and video circuitry.

System-less clients
– Computers that do not nave operating systems installed on their local hard disks. System-less computers can start up from a disk image on a NetBoot server.
Tab – A key that, when pressed, moves the insertion point to the next tab marker.

Table – A two-dimensional set of values corresponding to an entity. The columns of a table represent characteristics of the entity and the rows represent instances of the entity.

Take – A take is another version of a particular shot. In shooting a film, there may be multiple takes of each shot.

Tape Backup – A duplicate on magnetic tape of the information on a hard disk. The alternative to tape backup is copying onto a second hard disk which is pretty expensive or copying dozens of 3.5-inch disks which is time-consuming.

Tcl (Tool command language) – A scripting language. Support for Tcl is built into Mac OS X.

TCP Transmission Control Protocol – A method used along with the Internet Protocol IP to send data in the form of message units between computers over the Internet. IP takes care of handling the actual delivery of the data, and TCP takes care of keeping track of the individual units of data called packets into which a message is divided for efficient routing through the Internet.

TCP/IP – Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. These are two of the main protocols of the Internet. To connect a computer to the Internet, it must have some kind of TCP/IP communication software installed on it.

Telecine Film Speed – The frame rate at which the film is run in telecine equipment during the transfer to video.

Telecine Log – A file generated by the telecine technician during the telecine transfer. Records the key numbers of the original camera negative and the timecode of the video transfer, tracking the relationship between them. Sometimes called a FLEx file.

Telecine – A machine that copies the images on the original camera negative to a videotape format, often including a window burn of the film edge code.

Telecommunications – The exchanging of information with other computers over phone lines. To telecommunicate, you need a computer, a modem, communications software, and a similar setup on the other end of the phone line. You can telecommunicate with other personal computers or with commercial information services.

Template – In a WebObjects component, a file containing HTML that specifies the overall appearance of a web page generated from the component. A form or an electronic overlay. For example, spreadsheet templates allow nonaccountant-types to use spreadsheet applications.

Temporal Compression – Image compression that is performed between frames in a sequence. This compression technique takes advantage of redundancy between adjacent frames in a sequence to reduce the amount of data that is required to accurately represent each frame in the sequence. Sequences that have been temporally compressed typically contain key frames at regular intervals.

Terabyte – 2 to the 40th power 1,099,511,627,776 bytes. This is approximately 1 trillion bytes or one thousand gigabytes.

Terminal – A Mac OS X application that lets you use a command-line interface and BSD a version of UNIX developed at UC Berkeley utility programs.

Text Generator – Firmware that prints characters on the screen in response to keypresses.

Text Mode – Information that is sent to the display in the form of characters that fit in a 40-column by 24-line grid or in an 80-column by 24-line grid.

TFT – Thin-Film Transistor, a type of active matrix display.

Thermal Transfer Printer – A printer that works by heating small points that produce dots on special heat-sensitive paper.

Thumbnail – In iMovie, the single-frame preview image of a DV clip. This is commonly seen on the shelf or in the clip viewer.

Timecode – A format for assigning each frame of video a unique, sequential unit of time. The format is hours-minutes-seconds-frames.

Title Bar – The horizontal bar at the top of a window that shows the name of the window’s contents and lets you move the window.

Token Passing – A network access method in which devices on the network pass a special sequence of bits, known as the token, from one device to the next. A device can transmit data on the network only if it is in possession of the token.

Token Ring – An industry standard network type that is commonly used to connect IBM mainframes and IBM PCs. Token Ring networks are arranged in a ring topology in which devices pass tokens from one attaching device to another.

TokenTalk – Software that enables AppleTalk protocols to run over industry-standard IEEE 802.5 Token Ring networks.

To-Many Relationship
– A relationship in which each source record has zero to many corresponding destination records. For example, a department has many employees.

Tomcat – The official reference implementation for Java Servlet 2.2 and JavaServer Pages 1.1, two complementary technologies developed under the Java Community Process.

Toolbar – A row of icons at the top of windows in the Finder and other Mac OS X applications. In the Finder, toolbar buttons take you instantly to specified folders, disks, servers, applications, documents, and more. In most applications that have a toolbar, you can customize the contents.

To-One Relationship
– A relationship in which each source record has exactly one corresponding destination record. For example, each employee has one job title.

Topology – The physical layout of the cables and devices on a network.

Touch-Tone Dialing – Touch-tone dialing is a method of dialing in which each character 0-9, , #, A, B, C, D is represented by a different tone.

Track – A QuickTime data structure that represents a single data stream in a QuickTime movie. A movie may contain one or more tracks. Each track is independent of other tracks in the movie and represents its own data stream.

Transaction – A set of actions that is treated as a single operation.

Transceiver – A computer’s hardware mechanism through which network transmissions are sent and received. The term is a combination of the words transmitter and receiver.

Transition – A blending of frames between two clips that smoothes out a simple cut.

Transmitting Device – The computer that is sending information.

Trash – Similar to the Windows Recycle Bin. The Trash is located at the end of the Dock.

Troubleshooting – Diagnosing a problem and hopefully solving it. It’s best to get peripheral devices that work automatically with the Apple IIgs so you won’t have personal experience with this activity.

TTL Time-to-Live – The specified length of time that DNS information is stored in a cache. When a domain name-IP address pair has been cached longer than the TTL value, the entry is deleted from the name server’s cache but not from the primary DNS server.

Turtle – A cursor shaped like a triangle. Using Logo programming commands like FORWARD, BACK, LEFT, RIGHT, you can move the turtle around the screen and create graphics.

Tween Track – A track that modifies the display of other tracks.

Twisted-Pair Cable – A low-cost cable type that consists of two wires that are individually insulated and then twisted together. Includes standard telephone wire as well as shielded twisted-pair cable, which has additional resistance to electrical interference.
UDF – Universal Disk Format, for DVD volumes.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol)-A communications method that uses the Internet Protocol IP to send a data unit called a datagram from one computer to another in a network. Network applications that have very small data units to exchange may use UDP rather than TCP.

UFS – UNIX File System format, a data storage format. For more information, see Mac OS X 10.0-Choosing UFS or Mac OS Extended HFS Plus Formatting Knowledge Base article 25316

UID (User ID) – A number that uniquely identifies a user. Mac OS X computers use the UID to keep track of a user’s directory and file ownership.

Unicast – The one-to-one form of streaming. If RTSP is provided, the user can move freely from point to point in an on-demand movie.

Unicode – A 16-bit character encoding standard developed by the Unicode Consortium between 1988 and 1991. By representing two bytes to represent each character, Unicode enables almost of the written languages of the world to be represented using a single character set.

Uniquing – A mechanism to ensure that, within a given context, only one object is associated with each row in the database.

Up Arrow – A key you can press in some applications to make the cursor move up one line.

URL – Uniform Resource Locator. A term for the address of an Internet site or other resource.

USB – Universal Serial Bus. An industry-wide peripheral bus standard that supports a data speed of 12 megabits per second, and that accommodates a wide variety of devices. Most new computers and peripheral devices are equipped with USB.

User Group – A computer club whose members share programs they’ve written and information they’ve learned.

User ID – A number that identifies you as a subscriber to an information service.

User Interface – The way a computer application communicates with you.

User Name – The long name for a user, sometimes referred to as the user’s real name.

Utilities or Utility Program – A set of applications that controls and manipulates the information on disks.
V – Volts.

Validation – A mechanism to ensure that user-entered data lies within specified limits.

VBR (variable bit rate) – A method of compressing data that takes advantage of changes in the media’s data rate.

VDC – Volts direct current.

VGA and SVGA – Abbreviation of video graphics array, a graphics display system developed by IBM. VGA has become one of the de facto standards for personal computers. SVGA stands for Super VGA, a set of graphics standards designed to offer greater resolution than VGA.

Video Mirroring – The act or feature of connecting two displays to the computer and using both displays at the same time, showing the same image both displays.

Video RAM-Video random-access memory. Supplies display memory additional to that provided in main memory. With more VRAM, more colors and higher screen resolutions are available.

Virtual Memory – Virtual memory is hard disk space that the computer uses as if it were RAM. Disk space used for virtual memory is not available for storing files. Data stored in virtual memory is lost on shut down as with physical RAM.

Virtual User – An alternate email address short name for a user.

Voice Input Device – A device that translates the spoken word into a form that some software can process.

Volume Name – The name of a disk or its main directory. Pathname is the complete name of a document beginning with the name of the disk, also called the volume name, the name of the subdirectory it’s in if it’s in one, and the name of the document. The pathname begins with a slash, and the parts of the pathname are separated with slashes. It’s called a pathname because it describes the route to the document.

VPN Virtual Private Network-A network that uses encryption and other technologies to provide secure communications over a public network, typically the Internet. VPNs are generally cheaper than real private networks using private lines but rely on having the same encryption system at both ends. The encryption may be performed by firewall software or by routers.
WAV – A Windows format for sound files.

Webcast – A broadcast of live video or audio on the Internet.

WebDAV Realm – A region of a Website, usually a folder or directory, that is defined to provide access for WebDAV users and groups.

WebDAV Web – based Distributed Authoring and Versioning-A live authoring environment that allows client users to check out Web pages, make changes, and then check them back in while a site is running.

WebObjects Builder – A tool used to graphically edit WebObjects components.

WECA (Wireless Ethernet Compatibility Alliance) – An organization that controls Wi-Fi interoperability (www.wirelessethernet.org).

Wi-Fi – An alternative name for the 802.11 HR DSSS standard.

Wildcard – A range of possible values for any segment of an IP address.

Window Burn – Visual timecode and keycode information superimposed onto video frames. It usually appears on a strip at the bottom or top of the frame, providing code information to the editor without obscuring any of the picture.

Window – With mouse-based applications, one or more areas on the screen showing one or more documents at a time.

WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service) – A name resolution service used by Windows computers to match client names with IP addresses. A WINS server can be located on the local network or externally on the Internet.

Wireless LAN – A logically separate network that provides all the functionality of a wired LAN without the physical constraints of the wire itself. A wireless LAN connects to a wired network through a physical base station. The base station communicates to the computers on that network through airwaves using radio frequency data transmission techniques, as compared with wired LANs that communicate through physical wire.

Wireless Node – A computer or network device with a wireless network interface card adapter.

Word Processing Application – A type of application designed to make writing and editing easier and faster.

Word Wraparound – In some word processing applications, the automatic jump to the start of the next line bringing the word you’re typing with it when the cursor reaches the right margin, without your pressing Return.

Workgroup – A set of users for whom you define preferences and privileges as a group. Any preferences you define for a group are stored in the group account.

Workprint – A positive copy of the original camera negative, cut to provide a record and prototype of the creative edit. In traditional filmmaking, the workprint is edited first, and then used by the negative cutter as a guide for cutting the original camera negative. In digital filmmaking, a workprint is usually used to verify the cut list and to create a prototype of the film to view on a big screen before conforming the negative. Sometimes called a work pix or cut pix.

World Wide Web – A system of linked servers that distribute pages of hypertext HTML, graphics, and multimedia information to users all over the world. Frequently shortened to the Web.

Write-Enable Notch – A small, square cutout in the upper-right corner of a 5.25-inch disk or the small, square hole in the upper-right corner of a 3.5-inch disk that indicates whether or not information can be recorded on the disk.

Write-Protect Tab – A piece of tape that you can use to cover the write-enable notch on a 5.25-inch disk so information can’t be recorded on it. The write-protect tab on a 3.5-inch disk is a small piece of plastic that slides to cover or uncover a square hole in the upper-right side of the disk.

Write-Protect – To prevent changes to the contents of a disk by covering the write-enable notch on a 5.25-inch disk or by sliding the small, plastic tab to uncover the square hole on a 3.5-inch disk. Copy-protect means to prevent someone from duplicating the contents of a disk.

Write – To record information on a disk.
XOFF – An ASCII character that tells the transmitting device to halt transmission.

XON – An ASCII character that tells the transmitting device to resume transmission.

XLR Plug – A three-pin audio connector that can be used with three-wire balanced cables, which cause electro-magnetic interference to be canceled out.

XML – Short for Extensible Markup Language, a specification developed by the W3C World Wide Web Consortium. XML is a pared-down version of SGML Standard Generalized Markup Language, designed especially for Web documents. It allows designers to create their own customized tags, enabling the definition, transmission, validation, and interpretation of data between applications and between organizations.
Z80 Card – A circuit board containing a Z80 microprocessor. An Apple IIgs equipped with a Z80 card can run programs based on the popular CP/M operating system.

Zip Disks – and other super floppies High-density removable disks that store 100, 200, or more megabytes of data. The computer industry has adopted these disks and their associated drives in place of the older floppy disk media. Zip is a registered trademark of Iomega Corporation.

Zone – A logical grouping of devices in an AppleTalk internet that makes it easier for users to locate network services.